Do input (s) matter in Second Language Acquisition (SLA)? Evidence from the Learners’ Outcomes

  • Raj Wali Khan (PhD), Department of English, City University of Science and IT, Peshawar
  • Mian Farman Ullah MPhil Scholar, City University of Science and IT, Peshawar
  • Masood Khan MPhil Scholar, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan
Keywords: Input, Outcomes, SLA, Language Exposure, Urdu


The paper has investigated the role of L2 input (exposure) on learners’ outcomes in a second language learning setting among Pakistani students at the secondary level. The data were collected from one hundred and sixty-seven participants through a questionnaire (checklist) and a test from randomly selected English Language learners’ samples and analyzed through SPSS. The results have confirmed that the students of the private schools receive higher-level of inputs (English) than the state school students: t (167)=7.89,p<.05. The analysis also indicated that there have been statistically significant effects on the learners’ parents’ family income and education level.  However, the results presented no significant difference in terms of gender.  The findings may help teachers to improve their classroom interactions by providing better input(s) opportunities. It also proves that the students, who avail ample inputs, are more proficient and accurate in their production and commit fewer errors and mistakes in their outcomes. Moreover, it may help the authorities and policymakers to devise policies, and curricula and design materials accordingly.