sjesr 2021-03-31T04:52:25+00:00 Muhammad Idrees Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Practitioners’ Perception on the Critical Determinant of Uncertainty Factors that Influence Transaction Cost in Highway Construction Projects 2021-03-31T00:25:08+00:00 Zaigham Ali Dr. Ammar Hussain Mehfooz Ullah <p><em>The purpose of this paper is to ascertain practitioners’ perception of the critical determinants of uncertainty factors on the transaction cost (TC) in highway construction projects. A survey questionnaire is used to collect data from the 230 practitioners of public-sector construction organizations in Pakistan to identify those factors. The partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is tested on the collected data. This research investigates that TC borne by the owner can be reduced when the owner minimizes inherent uncertainties. To reduce uncertainty, the owner needs to ensure a good relationship with the contracting parties, make a timely payment to the contractor, complete work scope to reduce change orders, enhancing the owner’s experience in similar projects which increase the organizational efficiency hence reduce in TC. This empirical study was conducted from an organizational perspective which helps the project owners to overcome the issues under uncertainty that influence the Transaction cost (TC) in highway construction projects in developing countries. It demonstrates that the uncertainty that causes to enhance the TC is due to the uncertainty of the owner’s behavior. This study provides a guideline for the practitioners of the public sector construction industry to bring cost efficiency under the uncertain circumstance.</em></p> 2021-03-30T07:29:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Pak-Iran Relations: Challenges and Expectations (2001-2012) 2021-03-28T00:11:13+00:00 Syed Sajjad Haider Dr. Gulzar Ahmad Dr. Muhammad Khurshid <p><em>This paper endeavors to analyze the relations between Pakistan and Iran, during the ‎past ‎more ‎than seven decades, especially after 9/11. The relations between both countries ‎remained ‎normal and friendly, but with ‎a slight ‎divergence. ‎These relations became very critical ‎after 9/11 ‎due to the huge pressure of the US. There are&nbsp;many&nbsp;areas&nbsp;of divergence between these ‎two countries ‎such as the gas pipeline treaty, diplomatic support of Pakistan in the Iranian nuclear ‎program, trade, and ‎economic issues. In this paper, an attempt has been made to critically ‎highlight and discuss the ‎challenges and expectations emerging after the Islamic revolution and ‎during 2001 to 2012. The ‎core objectives of the study are to know about the nature of Pak-Iran&nbsp;‎relations in the past, to ‎describe the nature of Pak-Iran&nbsp;relations from 2001-2012, to measure the ‎influence of world ‎powers on Pak-Iran relations to analyze the challenges facing both the ‎countries, etc. Suggestions ‎are&nbsp;also made to improve the relations between both Islamic republics’ countries in the region. Pakistan's and Iran’s concerns and interests are related to the new regional and ‎international atmosphere. New problems and new opportunities have been created for both ‎countries, affecting their bilateral and multilateral relations since the events of September 9, ‎‎2001. The two countries should devote more energy to increase their economic trade, strengthen ‎security cooperation, and identify practical ways to cope with the problems of the region.</em></p> 2021-03-27T16:28:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Sports Pre-Competitive Anxiety Levels among Good and Poor Performing Intercollegiate Athletes 2021-03-27T00:01:29+00:00 Dr. Farooq Hussain Muhammad Shah Azmat Ali <p><em>Pre-competitive anxiety refers to the unpleasant emotional state of individuals. It is normal for every athlete to feel nervous before a sports competition. The pre-competitive anxiety levels in the current study examined three features i.e. somatic anxiety, self-confidence, and cognitive anxiety between the sample of poor and good performing athletes. The assessment has been made by using competitive state anxiety inventory -2 (CSAI-2), which is composed of 27 items distributed in equal three subscales of pre-competitive anxiety. The sample of the study was composed of 180 performers of different sports, into groups of 90 each good and poor performer whose ages were between 16 to 27 years. Data collected has been analyzed using a T-test. A significant difference has been found in all of the components of pre-competitive anxiety i.e. cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and somatic anxiety among good performers and poor performers.</em></p> 2021-03-26T16:33:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Cohesion and Coherence in Pakistani Expository Argumentative Essays: A Corpus-Based Study 2021-03-27T00:00:55+00:00 Shahbaz Haider Prof. Dr. Muhammad Asim Mahmood Ayesha Asghar <p><em>The current study aims to investigate the cohesion and coherence strategies employed by Pakistani English Language Learners (PELLs) in expository argumentative essays.&nbsp; For this purpose, the concept of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor premised upon Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) theory proposed by Devrim (2015) was applied to 50 expository essays drawn from International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE).&nbsp; The deployment of IGM linguistic resources (i.e., lexically dense nominal groups) in the text generates lexically condensed clauses, text cohesion, and causal linkages within the clauses&nbsp;(Thompson, 2014).&nbsp; The results reveal that most PELLs in this research contained an inadequate understanding of the cohesion and coherence realized by IGM linguistic resources in argumentative writing. The overuse of communicative conjunctions in the PELLs’ texts common in spoken English primarily formed their expository essays into descriptive texts. Pedagogically, it is safe to assume that, through the research findings, English Language Teachers (ELTs) can systematically teach PELLs about the employment of IGMs to produce cohesion and coherence in their argumentative written texts.</em></p> 2021-03-26T16:30:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effectiveness of Leadership Role in Taking Accountability Measures for School Improvement in Punjab 2021-03-27T00:00:56+00:00 Ishra Batool Dr. Seema Arif Muhammad Nadeem <p><em>There is little research on the school principal leadership role for monitoring and evaluating school performance, while Pakistan being the signatory of Sustainable Development Goals, is committed to achieving quality education. Planned changes are undergoing in the governance structures (school accountability) affecting schools in general, particularly school principals. The province of Punjab has excelled in implementing School Reform Roadmap (a whole school improvement program) and conducting a monthly assessment to monitor and evaluate Literacy and Numeracy Drive (LND), an initiative to measure 3<sup>rd</sup> graders' educational attainment.&nbsp; This research was conducted to review how the leadership role impacts achieving policy-mandated initiatives (LND) for schools' improvement. A case study method was opted for exploring the opinions of school principals from one district of Punjab. A self-constructed questionnaire comprising closed-ended items was used to get opinions from 194 elementary and primary school principals, while were interviewed to get detailed insight into barriers to school improvement and suggestion for better monitoring and evaluation.&nbsp;The case concludes that the participative leadership style is more prevalent among school principals, but the delegative style is more effective for school improvement.&nbsp; Most of the infrastructural facilities are now available in schools, but unfortunately, computer lab and computer teachers are not available in most primary and elementary schools, which is the necessity of LND. The results inform that student attendance is still problematic for schools, and this challenge alone can negatively affect School Sector Reform goals.</em></p> 2021-03-26T16:26:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Exploring Healthy life Style of University Students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2021-03-27T00:00:56+00:00 Azmat Ali Dr. Farooq Hussain Muhammad Shah <p><em>University is a critical stage of life in which students are more likely to engage in unhealthy health behaviors such as physical inactivity, stress, and bad dietary habits. Health-promoting behaviors are an important component of a healthy lifestyle and have been reported as a key factor in sustaining and improving one's health.</em> <em>This study aimed to determine the healthy and unhealthy lifestyles of students in KPK universities by gender and location. In total, 384 university students took part in the study, with 200 authentic and fully completed questionnaires used to determine the overall sample. Data was gathered from six universities in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Males made up the majority of participants (109, 54.2 percent), while females made up the rest (91, 45.3 percent). The findings revealed that the causes had a significant effect on the health of university students.</em> <em>Adherence to guidelines for physical activity and healthy eating habits was found to be insufficient among students.</em></p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effective Instructional Leadership can Enhance Teachers’ Motivation and Improve Students’ Learning Outcomes 2021-03-20T23:37:57+00:00 Dr. Farah Naz Surryia Rashid <p><em>School principals as instructional leaders set clear goals, manage the instruction and curriculum, observe lesson plans, dispense resources and assess teachers consistently. They focus to improve the quality of teaching and aim to nurture student learning. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of instructional leadership on teachers’ motivation level and students learning outcomes at the secondary school. The research will create awareness among the instructional leaders that how important their actions are in making a conducive school. The research will create awareness among the instructional leaders that how important their actions are in making the school culture more effective and conducive. The sample size consisted of 400 teachers from public and private secondary schools. A questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data. The research was quantitative. A survey design was used to see the impact of instructional leadership on the teachers’ motivation level and student achievement at the Secondary School Level. The questionnaire contained 35 items which were arranged into three factors, such as Instructional leadership, teacher motivation, and student learning. It was based on a five-point Likert scale. The findings of the research showed that both the male and female teachers of the public and private schools agreed that the instructional leaders encouraged teamwork developed positive relationships between parents and school staff. They agreed that the school principal tried to change the school climate according to the new trends.</em></p> 2021-03-20T16:14:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Key Stakeholders’ Perceptions Regarding Role of Mentors in Primary Schools 2021-03-24T16:49:53+00:00 Dr. Farrukh Munir Dr. Misbah Akhtar Syeda Tehmina Naz Bukhari <p><em>The paper aimed to examine part of mentors in the primary schools under the eyes of key stakeholders, the teachers of primary schools (TPSs). This study was carried out in one major district of the Punjab Province. The mixed-methods approach was used to meet the objectives of the study. The population of the research work was all TPSs in the district under study. The study sample was comprised of 1127 TPSs selected through random sampling in layers. Quantitative data was collected on a self-developed structured questionnaire while qualitative data was taken through semi-structured interview protocols from the 32 participants by convenient sampling. Descriptive statistics was employed for analyzing the data through qualitative analytical techniques for the explanation of qualitative data. The results of this research work explored most of the mentoring services of the District teacher educators’ were unsatisfactory. The authoritative behavior, less attention towards instructing, and lack of confidence were the key issues of coaching and mentoring. The results of this research work can be supportive in improving the current practices of the mentors for better results of the CPD framework.</em></p> 2021-03-20T16:10:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr A Study of Tabish Khair’s Poetic Work through Stylistics 2021-03-21T23:50:53+00:00 Shahida Parveen Ahmar Jahanzeb Dr. Muhammad Rashid Hafeez <p><em>Stylistics as a scientific discipline helps to interpret literary text logically based on linguistic evidence. This study aims at exploring the stylistic features of Tabish Khair’s poem, Immigrant. The poem has been analyzed on different levels of stylistics: graphological, phonological, morphological, syntactical, pragmatics, and discourse. The connotative and denotative meanings of the poem have been explored to get a complete understanding of the poem. The stylistic analysis of the poem reflects the main idea of the poem that is the quest of the poet for his homeland and his lost identity. The choice of the words by the poet has played a very important role in underlying major or minor themes of the poem. It is interesting to mention that he has not used the word Immigrant even once, yet the use of words is quite apt to convey the central idea. The poem is not monotonous or tedious. The poem is relatable to anyone experiencing the same phase of life or state of mind. The theme has been conveyed artistically by using different stylistic devices. This study is also the manifestation of the unique style and structure of Khair’s poetry.</em></p> 2021-03-20T16:07:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Examining Effects of Smart Phone Exercise Apps Usage on Weight Reduction in Young University Students 2021-03-21T23:51:18+00:00 Hira Atta Muhammad Tahir Nazeer Masood Mahfooz <p>According to WHO (World Health Organization) globally, obesity has almost tripled between 1975 and 2016. The purpose of this research study was to investigate the effects of mobile technology on weight loss in females. These days’ social media has a huge impact on youngsters, and they tend to use different apps on their cell phones. Mobile apps to lose weight are an interactive tool for weight management. These mobile apps provide a calculator for calorie intake and energy expenditure to attain goals of weight loss. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of exercise mobile apps on weight reduction. Forty female participants from Physical Education Classes (N=40) have voluntarily participated in this research. The data was analyzed through age, height, and weight. The statistical test paired t-test was used to check average weight differences after the implementation. The results of the current study showed a significant difference in the weights of females.</p> 2021-03-20T16:04:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Critiquing Collaborative Language Learning: A Qualitative Study of Teachers’ Perceptions 2021-03-31T04:52:25+00:00 Liaqat Iqbal Muhammad Sheeraz <p><em>Collaborative language learning, followed as a language teaching and learning methodology in many countries, is often critiqued with mixed arguments. To some, while keeping in view its social aspect where learners work on common projects intending to partake in collective decision making and intellectual engagement, collaborative language learning is more productive than the traditional way of teaching and learning a second/foreign language. To others, because of different requirements for its successful implementation, collaborative language learning becomes a difficult practice where the cost exceeds the benefits. To know the problems and prospects of collaborative language learning, in the present study, data were collected through semi-structured interviews from teachers of both public and private sector schools of district Mardan. Through purposive sampling, data were collected from 40 teachers (20 each from public and private sector schools). The findings reveal that besides many positive aspects, there are some negative aspects of collaborative learning where the prominent one is the loss of an individual's authority and creativity, promotion of totalitarian approach, and overlooking of the shy students. It can be a useful tool for language education provided some requirements including teacher training, availability of proper space, and classroom size, etc. are tackled properly.</em></p> 2021-03-18T09:57:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effects of Parental Involvement on the Participation of Students in Sports 2021-03-18T23:37:28+00:00 Muhammad Tahir Nazeer Hira Atta Azhar Ul Haq Wahid <p>Objectives: Parental involvement in sports activities of school-going children is considered as an important factor towards their sports participation. So, the purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of parental motivation, parental perception, and parental financial support on the participation of students in sports.</p> <p>Methods: A sample of 387 male students were selected through simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis techniques were applied.</p> <p>Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability for overall scales was 0.90. The average age of the participants was 15.46 years. The parental motivation level was close to moderate, the parental perception level was below moderate, the parental financial support level was above moderate and the sports participation level was equal to moderate level. All variables were positively and significantly (p&lt;0.01) correlated with each other.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: Parental financial support had a positive and significant effect on students’ sports participation. Therefore, parents and school management should provide sports equipment, coaching facilities, and a safe environment to improve the students' sports activities for their sound health and mind.</em></p> 2021-03-18T08:17:39+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effect of Teacher Performance Evaluation on School Effectiveness 2021-03-18T07:57:55+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Akram Dr. Farrukh Munir Dr. Ahmad Bilal <p><em>This study was conducted to measure the effect of teacher performance evaluation on school effectiveness in public high schools in Pakistan. Teacher evaluation is a formal and systematic process of evaluating teacher performance that plays an important role in enhancing school effectiveness. School effectiveness is a process that ensures that a particular school has effectively maintained a safe and orderly environment, implemented an instructional framework and curriculum that focuses on enhancing student learning, where the school monitoring system is highly responding, and where a competency-based system is in practice that ensures increased student achievement. A correlational research design was used to conduct this study. Using multistage sampling techniques, data were collected from 580 secondary school teachers in district Okara. Self-Assessment Instrument for Teacher Evaluation (α=.88) and School Effectiveness Questionnaire ((α=.86) were used for data collection. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that teacher evaluation scores and school effectiveness were significantly correlated with each other (r=.69). As teacher performance evaluation scores increased, the score on school effectiveness also increased. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that teacher performance evaluation score significantly predicted 46% of variance in school effectiveness. Further, female teachers were better on teacher performance evaluation score and school effectiveness. Teachers in urban schools showed higher scores on teacher performance evaluation scores and school effectiveness as compared to rural school teachers.</em></p> 2021-03-17T14:31:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effect of Store Environmental and Individual Factors on Impulse Buying Behaviour of Pakistani Consumers 2021-03-18T23:37:58+00:00 Dr. Ammar Hussain Dr. Tariq Khan Dr. Shiraz Khan <p><em>The issues related to impulse buying have remained a major concern for marketing researchers as well as practitioners. This study aims to examine the factors influencing an individual's impulsive buying behavior. The study also aims to examine the association between independent variables which are the environment of store and individual factors influence with impulse purchasing and to investigate the mediating role of mood. To examine the relationship between the variables under investigation; responses of 279 respondents were used for analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Regression and correlation analysis were conducted by using SPSS 17. The results show that the Store environment influences an individual's impulse purchase behavior similarly, further analysis of the data indicates that reference group influence is the aspect that influences the impulse buying behavior of individuals, and mood play's role of a partial mediator. Time pressure does not affect the impulse buying behavior of individuals. It was also found the difference between men and women impulse purchases and respondents were found of impulse purchases for food items. The study explored that mostly the food items are being purchased impulsively by the respondents, the results of the research show that 46.4 % of the total sample have purchased food items impulsively. The second product type which is being purchased impulsively is accessories like Tie, Belt, and artificial jewelry. Results show that 43.1% of respondents have purchased accessories impulsively. This study suggests some recommendations for the manager of stores for further improvement of store atmosphere to boost impulse buying behavior among buyers</em></p> 2021-03-17T14:27:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Impact of Talent Management on Employees’ Work Outcomes 2021-03-16T23:35:35+00:00 Muhammad Shafique Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman <p><em>The study focuses on empirically examining the relationship of talent management (TM) on employee performance and quit intention. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Further, by taking into account business strategy, the research also culls out the sequential mediation effect of talent management and employee engagement on employee work-related outcomes in the banking sector of Pakistan. Data were analyzed by employing Smart PLS (v.3.2.7) to empirically examine the conceptual model on 1095 talented employees, which were part and parcel of the Banking Sector of Pakistan. The core findings of the research paper are that the talent management practices have a positive impact upon the working of employees as well as quit intentions. Additionally, the study deduced that engagement at employees’ level might contribute partially as a mediation role in between employee work outcomes and talent management. The study employed cross-sectional one-time data collection, therefore its generalizability is suggested as limited with its scope. Human Resource personnel and OB practitioners can create a positive workplace culture in the organization by implementing talent management practices. The study makes value addition in the existing literature of talent management and explore new variable, which is affected by talent management.</em></p> 2021-03-16T08:11:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Effect of Democratic Coaching Style on the Game Strategy of Badminton Players, at Region, Sukkur-Sindh 2021-03-18T23:38:28+00:00 Muhammad Hashim Darya Nisar Ahmed Khaskheli Javed Ali Soomro <p><em>This examination study was done to recognize the effect of democratic coaching style on the game strategy of badminton players. It was basic to discover the effect of prevalent democratic coaching style inside the educational structured organizations for developing successful inter-collegiate, inter-department, and inter-varsity level Badminton players. The examination was ensured on two hundred players (boys) related to Badminton-game. The players studying in various degree programs of twenty concerned Colleges of division Sukkur, (N=100) and twenty various departments of teaching (N=100) of Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur (SALU) took an active part in the examination. The Badminton players evaluated the efficacy of democratic coaches on their game strategy, utilizing the Coaching Efficacy Scale (C.E.S), a review poll. The frequency and percentage were diversely processed with the general means as; 2.37, 2.41, 2.49, 2.37, 2.34, 2.51, which were distinctive essentially from one another. The outcomes demonstrated that the popularity-based democratic coaching style positively affects the game strategy of players to contend in the competitions. Finally, the impact of democratic coaching style on players' game strategy was found to be higher. This data would add to set up between university and between department level badminton programs all the more successfully to chase ability eventually.</em></p> 2021-03-16T08:07:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Bullying in Universities: A Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experiences of Students with Special Needs 2021-03-10T23:22:22+00:00 Sehrish Dr. Yaar Muhammad Dr. Faisal Anis <p><em>Bullying has been known as an extensive, persistent, and severe problem in educational institutions across the globe. Despite the research studies on bullying in recent years, most of the research directly focused on its multiple slants and characteristics among students without special needs (SN). Besides, few research studies are known about bullying in universities and its dimensions in the population of students with SN receiving support provision. In light of the above, the present study explored the students’ lived experiences related to bullying and victimization getting an education in universities with peers without SN. The sample of this phenomenological study consisted of 10 participants with SN attending university education. Semi-structured interviews were used as a research method for data collection. All participants shared negative experiences of bullying in universities while studying with students without SN.</em></p> 2021-03-10T09:54:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Locating the Social Position of Pakistani Women in Text Books 2021-03-10T23:22:47+00:00 Dr. Ikram Badshah Dr. Sarfraz Khan Muhammad Kamran <p><em>The curriculum is the most grounded device to transmit and transform the way of life, values, and convictions of the society to the students. At the point the children enter the school, the pictures of the male and female depicted in books, solidify their ideas about gender bias and such gender stereotypes shape the mental framework of the students and leave an everlasting effect on the social outlook of the students. Children develop a certain sense of perception and personality while reading such books. The text, words, and pictures in the books leave a permanent blueprint in their mind and they organize their behavior along the patriarchal line, represented in the books. In the textbooks, male-dominant ideology has been used to construct reality in such a way that serves the interest of men in a society. There is a latent and manifest nexus of power and language which favors the patriarchal values. Gender ideologies apparent in the books are also embedded in children's pictures, mass media, and even clothing. There are also more males characters and heroes than females characters and heroes in the textbooks of Urdu and English. All prominent leaders of the Pakistan movement are males and only one female leader, Fatimah Jinnah, has representation in the books but that too in her capacity as sister of the founder of Pakistan Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.</em></p> 2021-03-10T09:40:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Role of Interpersonal Competencies in Academic Performance 2021-03-08T23:14:20+00:00 Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Awan Dr. Rooh ul Amin Prof. Dr. Qadar Bakhsh Baloch <p><em>This study aimed at examining the relationship between the role of interpersonal competencies and students’ academic performance in the education sector of Pakistan. Students of Public sector universities operating in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan were considered the population for the research. A stratified random sampling method was adopted for the selection of the sample. A survey method based on a questionnaire was applied for the collection of data. Before the conduction of the field survey, the validity of questionnaires was confirmed through a pilot study followed by an expertise review. A total of 328 questionnaires were administered and responses were received from 261 with duly filled questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed through SPSS and LISREL software. Analysis included Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Regression Analysis. CFA model fitness was evaluated based on seven fit indices and the model was significant and well fitted. Regression analysis was undertaken to examine the association amongst dependent variables and independent variables. Regression analysis values depict a positive significant association among communication skills and students’ academic performance also show positive significant association among group/teamwork skills and students’ academic performance. Students’ findings were found consistent with previous studies conducted by (Latif 2006; Nasser, 2014; Nurmi, 2012; Korthagen, et al., 2014). The study recommended that at university level foundation course regarding the development of communication skills may be introduced to enhance the communication skills among students. It is also recommended that students may be engaged in interactive sessions for the development of their group/teamwork skills. The study further suggests that interactive seminars/workshops shall be arranged for students to exercise the importance of interpersonal competencies.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:38:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr US Interest in Afghanistan and Current Peace Prospects 2021-03-09T23:21:53+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Tariq Saira Bano Muhammad Amir <p><em>The long-standing presence of the United States in Afghanistan is coming to an end by April 2021 as a result of the February 29, 2020 US-Taliban Agreement. It was the 9/11 syndrome that increased the interest of the US and its allied partners in Afghanistan. The main objectives of the study include the US interest in Afghanistan, maintenance of security inside Afghanistan by the United States and its allied partners, and the current prospects of peace settlement in Afghanistan. The drawdown of the US forces from Afghanistan started in 2014 and complete withdrawal is going to take place by April 2021 whereby responsibility of the security of Afghanistan would completely shift to the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces and the role of the US troops catering to training, assisting and supporting the ANDSF would diminish.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:38:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Health Care Professionals Information, Practices and Observations Regarding Coronavirus Second Wave in Vehari, Punjab Pakistan 2021-03-09T23:22:23+00:00 Dr. Sadia Saeed Dr. Rao Nadeem Alam Hassan Ali <p><em>Pakistan is facing a health crisis due to the COVID-19 second wave which hits the country in October 2020. The study aimed to explore the observations about public behavior, practices, and the information of the health care professionals in Vehari, Punjab Pakistan. Interviews were conducted with health care professionals working in District Head Quarter Hospital Vehari. The study found that the health care professionals have good information and practices towards the various aspect of the pandemic disease COVID-19. In their observation regarding the public, there were some misconceptions and misleading information about the preventive measures against coronavirus. There is a need for a mass level of awareness campaigns on a different platform to end that wrong information for stopping the further spread of disease in the country.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:37:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr The Starter Activity of the Lesson; Considerable Categories and Dynamics 2021-03-09T23:22:53+00:00 Dr. Anjum Naz Dr. Abida Nasreen Dr. Sumaira Rashid <p><em>Lesson planning is an established skill and teacher trainers are giving it considerable attention during teacher training. The most challenging part of a lesson plan is a starter activity. This activity is not entirely neglected but still not well explored and researched. The purpose of this research study was to discover the categories of starter activities planned by the teachers teaching the matching subjects at the same level while having a contrasting background and training i.e. developed and developing countries’ teachers. Secondary school teachers from UK and Pakistan were selected conveniently. An inventory was used to collect data from the research participants.</em><em> A focus group was also conducted using ‘Teams’</em>.<em> A phenomenological investigation leads to considerable findings. The aim of starter activities is the same though the categories and extent of use are different. Further, it was established that teachers used starter activities as a tool and bait to engage students, create a friendly classroom environment, and arouse the curiosity of the students however some might be using the same as an opportunity to smile and achievement for everyone to ensure inclusion. It was suggested that considerable importance should be given to the subject and prospective teachers should be provided with an exhaustive list of starter activities categories to enable them to plan and deliver effectively.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:36:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Principals’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Managing Bullying Cases in Secondary Schools 2021-03-09T23:23:18+00:00 Malahat Fuad Siddiqui Dr. Yaar Muhammad Hadiya Naseer <p><em>School education is termed as the foundation that has the whole life of the child dependent upon. Schools are expected to be at par with the latest educational trends, shaping the students' personalities by mitigating the adversities of life yet contemplating skills needed to succeed in life later on. For the very same reason, modern schools ensure an overall environment conducive to the overall development of children. Several factors can hinder the process, among which bullying in schools has become the major concern.&nbsp; School principals have the encumbrance to maintain a hassle-free environment and an uninterrupted teaching-learning process in school. The study, therefore, sought to explore the efficacy beliefs of the principal to deal effectively with bullies while interplaying with different paradigms of bullying management. The theoretical framework was nested in the six approaches presented by Rigby as in Traditional Disciplinary Approach, Strengthening the Victim, Mediation, Restorative Justice, The Support Group Method, and the Shared Concern Approach. A Phenomenological research design was used, and seven principals of schools in Lahore were selected as participants of the study through purposive sampling. A self-constructed, semi-structured interview guide was used as the basic data collection tool. The obtained data were interpreted to meaningful information in relevance to the study by using profiling and then the reflexive thematic analysis technique. Findings revealed that participants are well aware of the concept of bullying, its types, and the adversities associated with bullying. Most of them have devised their hybrid systems to counter bullying in their schools. However, strengthening the victim was found to be the approach the participants feel most efficacious to work with. They regard it fruitful and rewarding in terms of the outcome.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:36:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Role of Social Factors affecting the Development of University Football 2021-03-20T17:43:05+00:00 Prof. Wu Hao Muhammad Tahir Nazeer Ali Raza <p><em>Background: Football is known as the world's No. 1 sport and has always been loved by the majority of young people. The development of football on campus also has a long history and an extensive positive influence. It is recognized as a sport with good exercise value. With the increasingly close connection between football and social life, the development of university football is inevitably affected by many social factors. Through the analysis of the macro-development environment and development status of university football, it discusses the social factors affecting the development of university football from various aspects such as social systems, traditional ideas, and values. Method: Employing literature review, logical analysis, discussion with players, and experts interview methods, the athletes and coaches of university football teams were visited and investigated. Based on the guidance of players and coaches this paper summarizes the present situation of the football players of Pakistan with detailed data. Conclusion: The development of University Football faces the double lag of hardware and software facilities, and the competent supervision department of the state cooperate insufficient execution, weak University Football culture atmosphere, etc. are all bad factors that restrict and affect the development of University Football in our country.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:35:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr Brain Drain: Comparative Study of Propulsive Factors 2021-03-12T23:22:52+00:00 Sumera Shabnum Nadeem Iqbal Haseebullah Khan <p><em>Brain drain is one of the important aspects of development economics/Demographic transitions. A populous country has the potential to export human capital. There are so many determinants of Human Capital Outflow (HCO). Some like economic, social, and political drivers are already discussed in the previous studies. This study compares the impact of various classes of variables on the HCO. Furthermore, it gives recommendations for controlling HCO based on such results. Data is collected in the form of questionnaires from three rural and three urban areas of Peshawar. Random sampling is used. Probit models are used for comparing the significance of variables. The study shows that not only the classic variables, i.e. economic, social and political are important but also the newly introduced religious and environmental factors have a great impact on HCO. The forthcoming researchers can do further study by considering even more factors affecting the HCO. They can conduct studies for different areas and on different scales.</em></p> 2021-03-08T16:35:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr