https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/issue/feed sjesr 2021-08-05T04:47:30+00:00 Muhammad Idrees info@sjesr.org.pk Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/796 The Role of Elementary Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence Competencies in improving Students’ Motivation and Student-Teacher Relationship 2021-08-05T04:47:01+00:00 Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan riffarukh@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Anwar nadeem.anwar@uos.edu.pk Samreen Farooq samfarooq10@gmail.com <p><em>Emotional intelligence is an accumulation of many emotional intelligence competencies and these competencies are generally found in people with different variations. Emotionally strong teachers impact teaching learning process in schools positively. The present study was conducted to find out the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) competencies of teachers on student-teacher relationship and student’s motivation at elementary level. Twenty five competencies of teachers were explored under five major domains i.e. emotional self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, social-skills and social-awareness. Goleman’s Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis &amp; Goleman, 2002) was used as a tool for data collection. Two questionnaires were developed by the researchers after review of related literature for measuring the student’s motivation and student-teacher relationship. For assuring the reliability of instrument, Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was calculated, which ranged from 0.73 to 0.86. One hundred and sixty elementary school teachers (EST) and senior elementary school educators (SESE) were selected as the sample of the study from two tehsils of Sargodha district. The data of one hundred and fifty one respondents were analyzed through t-test, one way ANOVA and regression analysis. The findings discovered that teacher’s EI competencies had significant effect on students’ motivation and student-teacher relationship in elementary schools. There was no gender difference in emotional competencies of teachers. It was concluded that age had significant effect on teacher’s EI competencies as younger ones scored higher on ECI. It was recommended that training programs may be organized to enhance teachers’ emotional intelligence competencies.</em></p> 2021-08-04T17:16:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/793 The Relationship of Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: The Mediating Effect of Attitudinal Factors 2021-08-05T04:47:30+00:00 Muhammad Sadiq msadiqhussain99@gmail.com Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan riffarukh@gmail.com Ghazanfar Ali ghazanfaraliuos@gmail.com <p><em>The study intended to examine the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of students studying business education in different universities. More over the mediating effect of attitudinal factors on the relationship of intended variables was also explored. Six hundred graduate students were surveyed through a questionnaire from three public universities. The findings displayed that entrepreneurship education was significantly affecting entrepreneurial intentions of the students. Attitudinal factors have a strong mediation for entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of higher education students. It can be concluded that entrepreneurial curricula and instruction along with attitudinal factors can add significantly to advance entrepreneurial intentions of students. It is suggested that the students of higher education, may be exposed towards entrepreneurship knowledge through regular instructional process, seminars and workshops to enhance their entrepreneurial capacities.</em></p> 2021-08-04T15:01:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/791 Early Childhood Teacher Competencies: Perspectives of Educational Leaders of Public and Private Sector in Karachi 2021-08-04T04:26:28+00:00 Humera Naz Fayyaz humera.research@gmail.com Jawad Ali jawadbaloach.sef@gmail.com Dr. Shelina Bhamani shelina.bhamani@aku.edu.pk <p>In Pakistan, various teacher development and professional competency model exist and have been presented. However, there is a lack of a competency model for teachers of early childhood care and education (ECCE). This research study was an attempt in initiating a formal discourse regarding how school leaders perceive ECCE teacher competency (TC). The study approached an exploratory qualitative study with the intent to understand the perspective of educational leaders from the public and private sector pertinent to ECCE-TC. Four school leaders, two from each sector respectively were approached to share their perceptions regarding the same. The researchers used an in-depth qualitative interview with a help semi-structured interview topic guide. The findings reveal that ECCE is a specialized field and that there is a need for ample work to be done to recognize this field. The data also revealed that there are discrepancies &nbsp;concerning recruitment criteria, teacher appraisal and credits for continuous professional development. More so, there is a need for national level agenda to address the gaps of competency and licensing framework. We present a policy recommendation as closure of this paper for Pakistan to have a task force on ECCE with the relevant field experts who could contribute with their pragmatic experience and align Pakistan ECCE landscape with global standards</p> 2021-08-01T15:48:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/786 What Should We Learn from New Trends in Teacher Education 2021-07-28T04:40:01+00:00 Preeta Hinduja hindujapreeta@gmail.com Altaf Hussain mailaltafh@gmail.com Shahnaz Noor shahnazhoth@gmail.com <p><em>This theoretical paper discusses the salient features of new trends in Teacher Education and their implications for teachers’ learning in 21st century. With this, the paper represents Social Justice Approach, Master-Apprentice Approach, Teacher Identity Approach, Reflective practices Approach, Competence Approach and, Applied knowledge Approaches. In addition, the paper presents seven elements of effective Professional Development required being a 21<sup>st</sup> century teacher as suggested by Darling-Hammond et al., (2017). &nbsp;Besides, the paper describes ‘How teachers learn’ suggested by Jones and Dexter (2014). &nbsp;It further discusses the questions and concerns that have been raised about these new trends. In addition, it highlights the issues faced by Pakistani teacher education program. Finally, the paper recommends what trend(s) Pakistani teacher Education should adapt that help teachers becoming prepare for 21<sup>st</sup> century.</em></p> 2021-07-27T17:10:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/776 A Comparative Analysis of the Pronunciation of Engineers and Bureaucrats: An Explanatory Research 2021-07-20T04:30:02+00:00 Afshan afshanacademia@gmail.com Dr. Sikandar Ali Sikandar.ali@ell.uol.edu Anum Saeed Pakistaninin47@gmail.com <p><em>It is a fact that English has become part and parcel of our society. All the fields of our society have been affected by English in the modern epoch. Major important issues pertaining to English language teaching are still unanswered because of lack of strategy for teaching English in our educational institutes. Similarly, pronunciation is one of the major factors, which ruins the image of a speaker, although he or she is good in grammatical and other features of English language. The purpose of instant study is to find out the reasons behind mispronunciation of English language in our society. For this purpose, two types of important professional fields of our society were taken up for experiment, which were bureaucrat and engineer. Similarly, two types of research tools were adopted, first was an Observation Sheet and second was structured open-ended questionnaire. The results show different aspects of both targeted groups. It was revealed by the research that bureaucrats are in favour of going with correct pronunciation, whereas engineers are not as enthusiastic to be corrected in pronunciation as bureaucrats.</em></p> 2021-07-19T17:45:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/780 Pragmatic Competence: Difficulties faced by Pakistani EFL Learners 2021-07-29T14:45:17+00:00 Muhammad Ashraf dogerashraf@gmail.com Dr. Sikander Ali sikanderali5121472@gmail.com <p><em>The study investigates the pragmatic knowledge; pragmatic competence level as well as speech act strategies used by Pakistani EFL learners. It reveals that Master level English language learners are unable to produce and comprehend the intended meanings in the target language. As a result, pragmatic failure and misunderstanding occurred. Pragmatic comprehension and production is essential for effective communication especially for EFL learners in this modern age where people have to communicate cross-culturally as English is being used as lingua franca internationally. The study explores the problems faced by EFL learners in comprehending and producing the correct speech acts in English. The study used two data collection tools: a WDCT in which speech acts of refusal and apology are used to find out pragmatic competence level and difficulties faced by Pakistani EFL learners. A Likert Scale questionnaire is used to know about the views and suggestions of the Pakistani EFL learners about the teaching and learning environment regarding the pragmatics. The data of speech acts of refusal is analyzed qualitatively according to the taxonomy of Beebe, keeping in view frequency, shift and content of semantic formulas. While the data of speech acts of apology is analyzed according to the speech act strategies of Cohen. Data collected through the Likert scale questionnaire is analyzed quantitatively. The study finds out that pragmatic competence level of Pakistani EFL learners is very low as well as they have to face many difficulties which result in pragmatic failure.&nbsp; Findings of the study show that Pakistani EFL learners lack knowledge of pragmatics in the target language. EFL learners acknowledged that pragmatic knowledge is very important for effective communication and it should be an integral part of syllabus and classroom activities.</em></p> 2021-07-09T05:56:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/760 Analyzing George Bernard Shaw’s Portrayal of Women in the Light of Postfeminist Theory 2021-07-04T04:00:27+00:00 Dr. Shahid Abbas shahid.abbas@uos.edu.pk Dr. Ijaz Asghar ijazasghar@hotmail.com Qamar Hussain qamar.hussain@uos.edu.pk <p><em>The paper aims at investigating the critical opinions about Bernard Shaw’s ambivalent relation to feminism. In this regard, the researchers highlight the emerging role of postfeminism and its overlapping elements with the Islamic portrayal of womanhood. Shaw differs from his predecessors drastically – he portrays independent female characters as compared to the invisible and submissive females of the past. Thus, one of the striking features of Shaw’s drama is the depiction of liberated women. The Shavian women do not consider men folk as their rivals. There is a shift from powerless to empowered women in academia. The researchers find out that there is an ideological conflict between feminism and Islam but as far as postfeminism is concerned, there is none. Rather, postfeminism propagates and supports the Islamic concept of womanhood thoroughly. It is also worth noting that feminist ideas and ideology have greatly dented the social and political fabric of mankind and human civilization in general. Whereas, postfeminism propagates in favor of maintaining a balanced position for womanhood in life which is a balance between social and individual life, and a balance between professional and family life. The purpose of this article is to promote a better understanding of the status of women in Islam and its overlapping and common areas with postfeminism, that is, God has equated female folk at par with their male folk. The research is significant as it challenges the western notion of women in Islam and dispels the erroneous notions of suppression of women in Islam. The prime finding of this research is that postfeminism proclaims equal footing for men and women in life, as enshrined in the Holy Quran.&nbsp; Further, the researchers lament that just because of myopic-minded people, the world is not making any progress intellectually. The researchers recommend that there is a dire need to promote liberal intellectuals like Shaw who harbor no bias against Islam and Muslims to maintain peace and order in the world.</em></p> 2021-07-03T15:27:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/764 Analysis of Impact on Mental Health and Motivation Levels of Higher-Levels Students Due to Novel Virus COVID-19 2021-07-04T04:00:52+00:00 Shabiha Anjum shabiha.anjum.sa@gmail.com Farah Latif Naz farahlatif@bzu.edu.pk Abdul Quddus a.quddus@mnsuam.edu.pk <p><em>The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact on Mental Health and Motivation levels of university students because of nCOV-19. This study analyzed the perception of students’ mental health and Motivation level due to nCOV-19. The population comprised 25000 students of the University of Education Multan, Baha Uddin Zakariya University Multan, and MNS University of Agriculture Multan. They selected a sample of 250 students through the cluster and stratified sampling technique. A survey was conducted for the quantitative components of the study amongst students using a self-made questionnaire based on the factors of mental health and motivation level. Three factors of mental health are stress, anxiety, and depression. The researcher distributed and administered the questionnaires himself. The study reviewed relevant literature regarding nCOV-19, character and higher educational institutions, and other factors influencing these variables. The received information was broken down using illustrative and inferential measurements. Descriptive statistics included mean, median, mode, and standard deviation. The results show that students receive a high level of data collected about the motivational level of students. Both anxiety and depression at a low level, and stress at moderate level amongst university students during the nCOV-19 Pandemic. Inferential statistics included t-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression. The commonness of stress and depression in females is greater than males with a minimum margin, which shows females face a slightly higher level of stress and depression than males. But the commonness of anxiety in females is greater than males with a moderate margin, which shows females face a higher level of anxiety than males. Pearson coefficient correlation indicates a negative low degree of correlation between the impact of motivational levels and students' academic achievement.</em></p> 2021-07-03T15:24:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/767 Visual representation of COVID-19 in Children‘s Literature: A Semiotic Analysis 2021-07-04T04:01:19+00:00 Huda Tufail hudatufail99@gmail.com Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan mamonakhan1234@gmail.com Prof. Dr. Uzma Qureshi uzmaquraishi@yahoo.com <p><em>The massive spread of Coronavirus has badly affected the entire globe and lives of the people irrespective of age or gender. Children in this regard are no exemption. They are affected not only physically but also emotionally and mentally due to the virus and quarantine period. This study aims to provide a semiotic analysis of the visual representations of Covid-19 in the children’s book covers selected on a global level. These covers are new emerging literature and serve to narrate a global discourse related to COVID-19. The researchers have followed the qualitative approach and the data have been collected using purposive sampling technique to provide a holistic interpretation of the selected covers. Framework, selected for the study, is ‘Semiotic Analysis’ by Kress and van Leeuwen (2006). The findings revealed that the participants’ actions and overall circumstances in these covers are highly meaningful. The action narrative and colorful illustrations aim to motivate the young audience in a positive manner. Furthermore, they communicate a message of hope and urge them to fight against the virus. The visuals in these covers are therefore quite significant in their meanings and interpretations.</em></p> 2021-07-03T15:22:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/668 Evaluation of Public Transport: A Case Study of Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan 2021-07-03T15:47:23+00:00 Abdul Ghafar a.ghaffarmastoi70@gmail.com Zulfiqar Ali Lashari zulfiqarlashari5@gmail.com Shahbaz Khan Samoo Samooshahbaz@gmail.com <p><em>The spatial and economic growth of cities and regions is heavily influenced by transportation. A better knowledge of public transportation will help to clarify the positions of the public and private sectors, as well as recognize the critical government position. To study the problems and issues of the public transportation system, Qasimabad, Hyderabad is selected as a study area due to some serious issues of public transportation. Personal observations and questionnaires were used to gather data from the research area. And for analyzing the data SPSS and MS Excel are used. The results reveal that the existing public transportation system is not meeting the needs of residents. Hence use of private transportation is high and causing environmental and traffic jam problems. As 68% of respondents use a motorbike for recreational purposes, 64% of respondents are not using public transport due to safety factors. In general, 54% of respondents were not satisfied with the service of public transport. As people are willing to use public transport but due to some factors such as safety, they are not using public transport so it is suggested that both vehicles and roads must be safe for users. This study aims to study the existing scenario of public transportation in terms of services and facilities, and people’s perception about public transportation. So it is concluded that people are tending to use public transport but under some certain conditions (factors preventing the use of public transport), if these concerns are solved then public transport system will become more efficient.</em></p> 2021-07-01T15:20:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/757 The Impact of Climate Change Coverage on Public Adherence towards Health Threat: An Empirical Validation of the Health Belief Model 2021-06-29T04:23:18+00:00 Moneeba Iftikhar mobi_80@yahoo.com Dr. Muhammad Yousaf m.yousaf@uog.edu.pk <p><em>Owing to the emerging challenge of smog and the controversies over its causes and solution, the current study seeks to find out the influence of media messages on health-related behavior and the mediating role of the threat perception and perceived benefits towards health-related behaviors in Pakistan. A cross-sectional research design vis-à-vis survey method was used to investigate the influence of media, perceived threat, and perceived benefits on the health-related behaviors of the public. For this purpose, a survey was conducted in Lahore (including urban, peri-urban areas) using a close-ended questionnaire. A sample of 232 respondents was obtained. Data were analyzed Smart with PLS software to examine the media influence on smog-related health behavior. The findings indicated that media positively influence the smog-related health behavior of the public. It was found that the relationship between media and smog-related health behavior is interceded by perceived benefits and perceived threats. Furthermore, perceived threats were found to be a stronger predictor in determining the media and smog-related health behaviors. The implications of the findings are discussed.</em></p> 2021-06-24T05:40:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/753 Effect of Self-Regulated Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement in the Subject of English at Secondary Level 2021-06-26T03:40:02+00:00 Sadia Rasheed sadiarasheed7@gmail.com Dr. Mumtaz Akhtar drmumtazakhter@hotmail.com <p><em>The study aimed at finding out the effect of students' self-regulated learning on their academic achievement in the subject of English. The study was conducted at the secondary level in the province of Punjab. It was quantitative in nature and employed a true experimental design (pre-test post-test control group). It was significant for teachers, curriculum stakeholders, training bodies, and policymakers. For the study sampling, a simple random sampling technique was used. Students' achievement test was developed for pre-test and post-test. The study sample consisted of sixty students of grade IX and they were divided into two groups; experimental and control. A pre-test was conducted on both groups to measure their current status of academic achievement. After the pre-test, the subject of English was taught to the experimental group by using self-regulated learning strategies while the traditional method (dominantly lecture method) was adopted to teach the control group. A post-test was conducted after an intervention of 16 weeks. The results of the test were compared by using a t-test. For data analysis, SPSS was used and results were interpreted accordingly. The study results revealed a significant difference between the test score results of the students. The study recommended appropriate teachers' training to use self-regulated learning strategies effectively at the secondary level. Textbook contents were also recommended to be devised supportive to gauge self-regulated learning.</em></p> 2021-06-24T05:38:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/752 Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Critical Thinking Skills; Interpretation and Analysis at Higher Secondary Level 2021-06-26T03:40:27+00:00 Tahseen Akbar akbartehseen@gmail.com Dr. Mumtaz Akhtar drmumtazakhter@hotmail.com <p><em>The study was conducted to find out the effect of cooperative learning strategies on students’ skill of interpretation and analysis at the higher secondary level. The research was quantitative. A pre-test post-test control group design was adopted for the study. One female public sector higher secondary school of district Sargodha was the population of the study. 60 students of grade XI were selected as a sample by using a simple random sampling technique. Two groups were formed: experimental and control comprising thirty students each. The experimental group was taught by applying cooperative learning strategies; jigsaw and scripted cooperation, while the conventional method was used to teach the control group. The period of intervention was sixteen weeks and English book I for grade XI was selected as content for intervention. A self-made test was used to assess the skills of interpretation and analysis as pretest and posttest. Data of pretest and posttest were analyzed by applying paired sample t-test. Analysis of the data showed a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group. On the other hand, there was no significant improvement seen in the control group. Teachers were recommended to use cooperative learning strategies to develop the critical thinking skills of the students.</em></p> 2021-06-24T05:37:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/749 Domestic Violence on Women and its Implications on their Health 2021-06-21T03:36:28+00:00 Saira Siddiqui sairasiddiqui14@hotmail.com Nabeela Farah donia.nabeela@yahoo.com Syed Kazam Hussain Shah kazamsherazi5@gmail.com <p><em>Violence against women is a severe violation of human rights and ranging from domestic and intimate partner violence to sexual harassment and assault. It is widely recognized as a serious human rights abuse. Violence has substantial consequences on women’s health. To evaluate the effects of domestic abuse and violence on the physical and mental health of women a study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were drawn from 222 women. Sampling was carried out using the multi-stage process of random sampling. Survey method was used for data collection and Statistical methods such as chi-square, correlation, linear and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data in this study. The findings showed a significant relationship between the physical and mental health of women due to domestic violence. This study emphasizes the need for justified women empowerment and a multidisciplinary approach to develop health measures, which will effectively address the problem of domestic violence.</em></p> 2021-06-19T17:15:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/732 Post-modernist Elements in Javed Ihsas’s Poetic Collection ‘Ayina (The Mirror)’ 2021-06-17T03:31:15+00:00 Muhammad Ramzan ramzannurar@gmail.com Shah Faisalullah faisalwazir59@gmail.com Dr. Abdul Karim Khan akarim.khan@yahoo.com <p><em>Javed Ihsas is a prominent contemporary Pashto poet, critic, and columnist. He writes poetry with the new spirit and style of the modern critical theories of literature and philosophy. In his verses, we can observe the elements of Modernism and Post-modernism as well. In this study, we explored the post-modernist elements in his poetry, especially in his Pashto poetic collection titled Ayina. The word 'Ayina' is a Pashto word that means 'The Mirror'. The very title of the collection gives a symbolic representation in the sense that it depicts a realistic picture of society. This study is an attempt to examine the Post-modernist elements in his poetry by using a post-modernist approach.</em> <em>The poet touches on the elements of post-modernism in his poetry such as the element of social construction; the notion that </em><em>ideas, politics, and language are socially constructed, consumerism, postponement, etc. This study explores the post-modernist elements in Javed Ihsas’ poetry which are will prove a beacon light for the young poets.</em></p> 2021-06-15T15:15:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/733 Measuring Structural and Psychological Empowerment in Nursing Profession: Scale Validation through Pilot Study 2021-06-15T03:24:24+00:00 Najia Shaikh najia.shaikh@usindh.edu.pk Ashique Jhatial ashique.jhatyal@usindh.edu.pk Muneerudin Soomro muneer.soomro@usindh.edu.pk <p><em>Research in the field of the nursing profession has attained its heights, especially in the developed countries. Most of the research in this field has addressed nursing empowerment, work attitude, and organizational outcomes. This study aims to extend understanding of whether structural and psychological empowerment drive work outcomes. Thus, this study has attempted to develop and customize a scale for primary data collection. Researchers highlighted various steps of questionnaire development, data collection procedure, and establishing reliability and validity at the pilot level. These steps help researchers to ground data collection tools in extant literature. Initial findings from pilot study data are reported. Data for this study was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire by employing a convenience sampling technique from registered nurses from public-private sector hospitals in Hyderabad, Sindh. Cronbach’s alpha, mean, and corrected total-item correlation</em><em> for all items are well above the threshold values. Findings of EFA shown that there are seven factors in the model. The CFA identified that every factor arises as a single factor and loads onto its construct with significant levels of indices.</em></p> 2021-06-14T18:02:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/597 Inclusive Education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Secondary Schools 2021-06-11T03:21:40+00:00 Dr. Nazir Haider Shah nazirshahte@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheen naqeeb.shaheen@gmail.com Dr. Sadaf Zamir Ahmed sadaf.zamir@mail.au.edu.pk <p><em>Inclusive education represents the concern of the entire school and is committed to providing quality education to all students in the most effective way, so that special education and general education are consistent. The study aimed to analyze inclusive education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study was descriptive in nature and a cross-sectional survey was applied to collect the data. All 538 secondary school teachers and headteachers of District Pooch were the population of the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The researcher selected 185 secondary school teachers and 45 head teachers through a proportionate stratified random sampling technique as a sample. A questionnaire for teachers and headteachers was used as a research instrument in this study. Data were collected through personal visits and postal service. Data were analyzed through mean scores and standard deviation. Based on analysis it was found that inclusive education provides an opportunity for the enjoyment and implementation of full human rights without any discrimination because inclusive education allows understanding individual differences. It is recommended that the school Education Department of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&amp;K) may introduce inclusive education at the district and tehsil level. Further, they need to plan for all teachers and headteachers to provide awareness about inclusive education.</em></p> 2021-06-09T15:28:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/737 Student’s Perception regarding the Effect of Faculty based Assessment Approaches on their Academic Performance at University Level 2021-06-20T17:10:57+00:00 Sadia Mushtaq sadia.mushtaq15@gmail.com Dr. Erum Aslam Khan erumkhan63@hotmail.com Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal m.zafariub@gmail.com <p><em>Instructional and assessment methods are varied and preferred by their teachers at higher-level institutions. A teacher guides their students with detail information and instructions to achieve their educational targets. Students share views regarding their faculty norms and standards that influence the adoption of their study methods. The major focus of this study was to find out the faculty-based differences of learners' views of assessment and its relationship with achievement at the university level. The study was correlational and the survey was conducted to investigate the research problem. All the public sector universities of Punjab were considered as a population of the study and only seven (07) public sector universities were taken as a sample. A questionnaire, students' perception of assessment (Waldrip et al., 2008) was adapted to collect the data from the respondents. Using the mean scores, standard deviation, t-test, and regression the collected data were analyzed. The findings of the study showed students have not the same perception about the assessment and the study concluded a significant relationship between students' perception of assessment and academic outcomes. Based on the study results, it was recommended that each faculty should well inform the students about the assessment methods and strategies for their outcomes improvement.</em></p> 2021-06-09T15:25:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/735 Comparing the Academic Motivation of Conventional and Distance Education Students: A Study about a Turkish University 2021-06-11T03:22:31+00:00 Muhammad Abid Malik m_abidmalik7@yahoo.com Bulent Akkaya bulent.akkaya@cbu.edu.tr <p><em>Distance and online education are becoming increasingly common in the current era. Along with many purely online and distance education universities, many conventional universities are also offering programs through distance education. Students studying in distance education programs have a different environment, culture, study habits, and other factors that may influence them and their motivation level. This study compares academic motivation levels between conventional and distance education students studying in a Turkish university program. Data were collected from 218 students through the Academic Motivation Scale. Independent T-test and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data with the help of the SPSS program. The results show that the academic motivation level of the students in a conventional program is statistically significantly higher than those studying through a distance program. Moreover, while there were differences based on all three demographical variables (age, gender, and grade), statistically significant differences were found only based on age and grade. The study suggests that there is a need to add motivational materials and strategies for distance education students. This especially becomes important for those conventional education students who have been forced to learn through distance/ online education during Covid-19.</em></p> 2021-06-09T15:23:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/665 The Effects of Natural Resource Degradation on Rural Women's Health: A Sociological Analysis 2021-05-26T02:38:32+00:00 Maria Saeed mariasaeed_59@yahoo.com Dr. Amber Ferdoos amber.ferdoos@iiu.edu.pk Aysha Jawaid aysha.phdsoc42@iiu.edu.pk <p><em>Natural resource degradation in developing countries is more likely to generate eventual threats of exhaustion. Major changes in weather patterns, seasonal cycles, and crop failure due to heavy rainfall have affected both men and women in rural areas of Pakistan. However, since women in rural areas of Pakistan are actively engaged in natural resource management, they are more likely to bear the brunt of the burden due to their traditional roles of washing, food preparation, water collection, and family care. Under a qualitative research design, the current research paper has focused specifically on how natural resource degradation affects the health of rural women. The research was conducted using thematic analysis, through an in-depth study of the day-to-day activities of rural women and the pressure experienced by them. To do so, sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with rural women by using interview and observation protocol. The findings revealed that rural women were dedicated to their work despite natural resource degradation they are bound to their household responsibilities, leading to mental and physical stress, as a result, overburdening and unhealthy lifestyles.</em></p> 2021-05-25T16:06:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/731 Pahari Distinctiveness without Pahari Language: A Study of Language Attitudes of the Pahari Community 2021-05-27T02:38:37+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi gulfrazabbasi@gmail.com Dr. Zafar Iqbal Khattak aburohaan2004@yahoo.com Dr. Yasir Arafat yasirarafat1980@gmail.com <p><em>Pahari language spoken in Murree and its suburbs is in contact with Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is also in contact with Punjabi and English. The present study explores the views and attitudes of the Pahari speaking community regarding the Pahari identity and culture vis-à-vis languages like Pahari, Punjabi, Urdu, and English. The study is ethnographic and is based on detailed observation and in-depth interviews of a sample of 91 people belonging to three generations. The study concludes that Pahari speaking community especially the Abbasi tribe, on the whole, claims to protect their culture and identity but gradually each new generation is hesitant in continuing Pahari as the symbol of their identity. As a result, language is, to a great extent, shifting towards Urdu. On a minor level, its shift to English and Punjabi cannot be ignored. The paper also explores certain reasons latent behind this kind of attitude.</em></p> 2021-05-25T02:44:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/728 Understanding the Perceptions of Teachers of Sukkur IBA Community Colleges and the Teachers of Public Schools of City Shikarpur about the Curriculum Ideologies: A Comparative Study 2021-05-27T17:40:03+00:00 Imran Ahmed Moriani imran.mphil18@iba-suk.edu.pk Naveed Ahmad Taseer taseer642nat1@gmail.com Amjad Ali Rind amjad.mphil18@iba-suk.edu.pk <p><em>The current study aims at understanding the perceptions of teachers about curriculum ideologies in the context of Sindh, Pakistan. A quantitative approach was employed within it the descriptive design was used. The data was collected through an adopted questionnaire developed by Schiro 2008. The sample of the study was a hundred teachers and the convenience sampling technique was adopted in this study. The data were analyzed through SPSS (SPSS) version 23.0 and percentages were calculated to know the perceptions of teachers regarding four curriculum ideologies namely scholar academic ideology, social efficiency ideology, learner-centered ideology, and social reconstruction ideology. The results revealed that learner-centered ideology was the most preferred curriculum ideology among the teachers of Five Sukkur IBA Community colleges whereas the Scholar Academic ideology has been the least favorable for them. However, Scholar Academy ideology was the most preferred, and social reconstruction ideology was the least preferred among Teachers of Public Schools of Shikarpur City.</em></p> 2021-05-25T02:41:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/726 Perspectives of Headteachers, Teachers, Parents and Caregivers about Early Childhood Education Program in Punjab: A Qualitative Study 2021-06-02T04:28:16+00:00 Saima Malik saimamalik666@yahoo.com Muhammad Zaheer Asghar saimamalik666@yahoo.com Laila Khalid saimamalik666@yahoo.com <p><em>This study was aimed to investigate the perspectives of headteachers, teachers, caregivers, and parents about the prevailing Early Childhood Education (ECE) program in public schools of Punjab. Participants of the study were selected through a convenient sampling technique. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 headteachers, 6 teachers, 3 caregivers, and 3 parents. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the collected data.&nbsp; All data related to eighteen participants were coded. Clustering similar codes helped in identifying sub-categories from data. Several assertions were developed by comparing and contrasting various categories and sub-categories. The findings of this research highlighted the missing facilities of ECE in public schools i.e. separate ECE rooms, trained ECE teachers, absence of caregivers, unavailability of a separate budget for ECE, provision of ECE kit, well-equipped playgrounds, reluctant behavior of teachers as well as parents dissatisfaction with teachers’ performance.&nbsp; The results of the study are useful for policymakers, administration of the Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED) to develop the program.</em></p> 2021-05-25T02:40:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/725 Local Perception about Caesarian Section among Post Caesarian Section Women in Pakistan 2021-05-27T17:40:10+00:00 Ikram Badshah ikram@qau.edu.pk Zakiya Rubab Mohsin zaki.rubab@gmail.com Jan Alam janalam@kust.edu.pk <p>Birthing is a critical moment in the life of a mother. The biomedical practice of the Caesarian Section (C-section) does not exist in a vacuum but is under the influence of the sociocultural environment. However, deciding between methods of birth and the perception about the C-section shows a gap and dearth in the present literature. This paper aims at understanding what social and cultural factors construct the perceptions and experiences of the Caesarian Section among post-C-section- women belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Moreover, it explores how these factors influence Pakistani women’s decision-making regarding childbirth methods. The paper uses a qualitative yet multi-sited locale approach, employing semi-structured interviews from 20 post-C-section women mainly from Islamabad and Rawalpindi region; 10 women belong to lower socio-economic status whereas, 10 to the upper one. Different themes from data were identified and obtained for analysis.</p> <p>The perception and experience of the C-section fluctuate with social, economic, and cultural factors. The influence of biomedical and intra-household politics on the decision of C-section is much conspicuous and evident. Affluent families practice C-sections under dominant power dynamics without any reasoning. For those who can afford C-section, is perceived as a luxury and artificial motherhood in the eyes of ‘’the others’’ whereas, normal birthing was true and natural motherhood. The social construction of the C-section suggests that social and cultural forces play a decisive role. C-section is only acceptable if there is an emergency otherwise natural birth is the most suitable method of childbirth. Along with advocating C-sections in critical medical conditions, an awareness campaign against C-sections is also imperative for it has severe consequences.</p> 2021-05-25T02:38:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/724 Worship in Islam and Contemplation in God's Creation (An Analytical Study) 2021-05-27T17:40:12+00:00 Dr. Samina Begum saminaphd@hotmail.com Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah hafiz.ibrar@ajku.edu.pk Dr. Hashmat Begum hashmat.begum@sbbwu.edu.pk <p><em>The contemplation of God’s creation is one of the greatest forms of worship in Islam &nbsp;every human being, when he observes the different scenes of this universe of colors and smells, enjoys seeing some of them so much that he longs to repeat this pleasure</em>۔<em>&nbsp;&nbsp;It is not amazing, therefore, that countless Quranic verses give confidence this action and do so using a range of methods to appeal to every temperament and religious state. The mean is to switch people away from their dulled senses, awful habits, and monotonous familiarity, and encourage them to observe the signs of their Lord in the world with insight and vulnerable hearts. True Islamic contemplation can only spring from a mind that believes in God and a mind that submits to Him and His glorious Attributes. This is the unwavering faith of oneness (tawhÏd), which is to bear witness that the Almighty is the One and only God Who created, governs, and maintain the universe. Any other form of contemplation of the attractiveness and brilliance of the heavens and the earth would be measured atheism or polytheism (shirk) because the contemplator would not be distinguished, let alone admiring and express thanks to the Creator. In all religions, after beliefs, the highest importance is given to worship. Worship and contemplation are inseparable.</em></p> 2021-05-25T02:36:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr