sjesr <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research en-US sjesr 2706-8285 Critical Analysis of the Poem 'Good Timber' by Douglas Malloch <p><em>Motivation, self-sacrifice, hard work for a good life, and forbearance against difficulties are mirrored in Malloch's poem ‘Good Timber. Certainly, Inspiration, sacrifice, industriousness for a decent life, and tolerance of teething troubles are echoed in Malloch's poem ‘Good Timber’. It is the faith that decent results are followed by hard struggles. It is grounded on confidence, hopefulness, and the trust that hard work is never wasted. The study aimed to critically analyze the poem in terms of Motivation, self-sacrifice, hard work for a good life, and forbearance of difficulties. This study asks what the main message of Good Timber is for learners. The process is ordinary. The sample is Malloch's poem Good Timber. A critical discourse analysis was selected as an analysis tool. It turns out that the poem Good Timber is a declaration of the powers of hard work to things of frustration and sluggishness, almost vulnerable to negative forces-discouragement, self-defeatism, and social effects. It is also mentioned that one should not show despondency entirely. He must have persistent conviction in the power of hard work - that God grants those for which you make hard work and hard worker is the friend of God.</em></p> Sawaira Idrees Syeda Laila Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 7 2 13 17 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss2-2024(13-17) The Best Strategies for Meaningful Change in Life-A Gift for 2024-25: A Phenomenological Study <p><em>An individual can become a polished gem with a good rub in this era of social isolation. Change is the only permanent thing that rules the world. All manifestations of nature go through change. The man also experienced this change from the Stone Age to the Modern Age. This paper concentrates on investigating the best strategies for meaningful change in life. These research questions were discussed; what is change in different manifestations of nature? What is a meaningful change in life? What are the best strategies for meaningful change in life? To collect data from the participants, the researcher used the qualitative design. Moustakas’ (1994) method of phenomenological data analysis which is an improved form of Van Kaam’s (1966) and Colaizzi’s (1978) methods were used for analysis of the collected data. Moustakas analytical method comprises epokhe, horizonalization, phenomenological reduction, imaginative variations, and synthesis (Katsirikou &amp; Lin, 2017). Findings showed that the best strategies for meaningful change in life are perfect planning, setting goals, efficient use of time, an amalgamation of cognitive, physical, and spiritual powers, working toward better working relationships and environment, and making progress by keeping the product in mind. It is recommended that the best strategies be investigated to bring better change in life in 2023 and onward.</em></p> Syeda Laila Saeed Sawaira Idrees Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 7 2 18 28 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss2-2024(18-28) Examining Disorders in Ibsen's Hedda Gabler <p><em>This study aims to investigate the trauma in Ibsen Hedda Gabler. It critically discusses the important aspects of trauma in Hedda Gabbler. The application of trauma theories propagated by Caruth and LaCapra is at the center of the present research. Theorists claim that literature is a means of understanding traumatic situations in the best possible manner.&nbsp; This study explains character behavior patterns to show how they behave differently under traumatic conditions. The present study aimed to understand the effects of trauma on a character's life. The study is qualitative, with a special focus on antagonist analyses. The data are analyzed in light of Caruth's theory (1995) on the traumatic aftershocks that characters suffer. The term PTSD is used in the current study to outline and provide a detailed explanation of a character's post-traumatic behavior. This study highlights how traumatic characters suffer from physical and psychological shock. The textual analysis technique is used to employ in this research. The findings reveal that the antagonist of the play experiences a range of post-traumatic experiences, which lead to a very tragic end. </em></p> Aneesa Younis Ayesha Fehmaish Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 7 2 8 12 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss2-2024(8-12) Nuclear Deterrence in the Cyber Age: Intricacies and Prospects <p><em>Nuclear deterrence is confronting unprecedented challenges in the contemporary era, particularly with the emergence of cyber warfare. As the world becomes increasingly dependent on digital technologies, the intersection of cyber and nuclear domains will have significant implications for global security. Nonetheless, prominent theorists, policymakers, and military strategists are attempting to reconsider its application in a post-Internet and cyber-ready world. There exists a C4ISR vulnerability to attacks on adversary command and control systems. Nuclear deterrence and cyber warfare are separate, but interrelated, challenges. Nonetheless, the cyber-nuclear link holds significant importance in modern crisis management. This paper investigates the complexities and challenges of nuclear deterrence in the cyber age, examining the evolution of cyber threats and the vulnerabilities of nuclear systems. Furthermore, it discusses the necessity for adaptable strategies to address these emerging risks. This research aims to provide a more profound comprehension of the challenges and opportunities arising from the convergence of the cyber and nuclear domains by conducting a comprehensive literature review and employing an extended nuclear deterrence theoretical framework.</em></p> Ayesha Abrar Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 7 2 1 7 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss2-2024(1-7) India’s Strategic Tilt: Global Alliances for National Gain <p><em>The research aims to explore India’s strategic tilt towards the great powers. How it creates an effect on its national gains. Study of this research aims to dive into India’s strategies by examining its geo-strategic location which is crucial for the global powers. By analyzing them this paper examines the motives, designs, and tactics of India to become a superpower and also the factors that are contributing to capturing the global powers' attention. This research questions what factors pitch in India's balancing act, specifically in dealing with the relations with the USA, China, and Russia. And in what ways does India’s cultural diplomacy aid in shaping the global perception of the country? The research implies a qualitative method for data collection. Narrative techniques were used for data analysis. The findings of this research will conduce to the understanding of how India strategically plays in the international arena with the great powers and what are their assumptions on it. It is recommended that India play a positive role in the peaceful existence of neighboring nations and resolve all issues with other countries peacefully.</em></p> Waniyyah Hassan Dr. Bilal Zubair Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 2 39 43 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss1-2024(39-43) Impact of the Teacher’s Technological Pedagogical Skills at Higher Level <p><em>Technology has developed a complicated and necessary interaction with various sectors of society in the twenty-first century, offering multiple conceptual and practical models for incorporating technologies in teaching. (TPCK) provides chances for learners to develop critical thinking and creative potential as part of their personal growth. This research study explores teachers' perceptions regarding the Impact of the Teacher's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) on Student's Creativity skills at higher levels. 100 teachers of B. Ed (Hons) have been selected from 10 Universities in Karachi through simple random sampling. Reliability &amp; Regression test has been run on SPSS for inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis revealed the age and gender details. This quantitative study revealed the significant relationship between teacher's Technological Pedagogical Content knowledge (TPCK) on Students' Creativity skills. </em>It was found that technology-integrated teaching pedagogy develops students' interest, motivation, collaboration, critical thinking, social responsibility, and creativity.<em> This study assists higher education teachers in comprehending the significance of Teacher Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) on Student Creativity skills. </em></p> Rubina Usman Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 2 30 38 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss1-2024(30-38) Weighty Matters: Exploring the Economic Ramifications of Obesity, Abdominal Bloating, and Spinal Deformities in Pakistan <p><em>This study conducted in Pakistan from December 2020 to December 2022 addresses the rising health issues associated with abdominal bloating (AB), spinal deformities (ST), and obesity. With risk factors including improper diet, sedentary lifestyles, and abnormal posture, the research aims to provide valuable insights into the complications and diseases linked to these health concerns. The observational study involved 50 males categorized into three age groups (50-60, 61-70, 71-75), with 48 classified as obese and 2 non-obese participants. Utilizing data tabulation and GraphPad Prism 9.5.2, the study employed econometric research methods and descriptive statistics, including ANOVA variance, for parametric analysis. Results indicated a positive association between AB and health diseases, with a slight association observed with ST. Participants exhibited varying levels of ST and AB, revealing potential links between these factors. The study concludes that factors like improper diet and sedentary lifestyles increase the risk of obesity, which, in turn, may progress to AB and lead to ST, potentially causing a range of chronic health issues.</em></p> Muhammad Ali Zubair Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-03-12 2024-03-12 7 2 20 29 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss1-2024(20-29) Effective Implementation of Semester System in Colleges: A Case Study of the Affiliated Colleges with the University of Malakand <p><em>This research aimed to investigate the measures required for the effective implementation of a semester system for undergraduate education in graduate and post-graduate colleges affiliated with the University of Malakand. The study mainly focused on physical requirements (lecture rooms, laboratories, library), human resource requirements (faculty members, staff), issues in the curriculum, and major issues in the assessment system from the perspectives of teachers of public sector colleges affiliated with the University of Malakand. A mixed-method research design was used for data collection. First, qualitative data was collected, and analyzed through thematic analysis, and then a questionnaire was developed for quantitative data analysis. The findings of the study showed that there were several issues in the implementation of the semester system in the affiliated colleges. These included lengthy courses, outdated content, irrelevant content, lack of space such as classrooms, science labs, etc, need for curriculum improvement, poor assessment system, lack of training for teachers, and lack of regular monitoring from management and the university side. Based on the results it is suggested that the implementation of the semester system in the colleges needs to be reviewed and improved for the affiliated colleges and to ensure quality education.</em></p> Dr. Itbar Khan Dr. Iqbal Ahmad Sumera Imran Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-03-03 2024-03-03 7 2 7 19 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss1-2024(7-19) Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: Economic Implications for the Region <p><em>This research paper explores the territorial disputes in the South China Sea and their economic implications for the regional countries focusing on their geo-economic and geostrategic significance. The South China Sea holds substantial importance because of the high percentage of global trade passing through it. The historical claims of Beijing on the Paracel and Spratly Islands against the UNCLOS provide a baseline of territorial disputes with ASEAN countries. For research methodology, the author relies on qualitative analysis using secondary data sources. To develop a theoretical framework for this complex issue, the author applies theories of <strong>Neo-Realism</strong>, <strong>Maritime Regional Security Complex</strong>, and <strong>Security dilemma</strong>. This paper is aimed at exploring economic implications for regional states in case of potential conflicts emerging in case of engagement among regional as well as external powers. This research has emphasized the development of a Beijing-ASEAN forum focused on establishing economic, diplomatic, and security ties for the creation of the <strong>Eastern Economic Block</strong> at a broader level.</em></p> Umme Laila Dr. Fouzia Amin Zafar Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2024-03-03 2024-03-03 7 2 1 6 10.36902/sjesr-vol7-iss1-2024(1-6) Assessing the Effectiveness of Quad in Maritime Containment of China in the Indo-Pacific Region <p><em>The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) comprises of likeminded countries India, Australia, US and Japan. It is a significant player in the Indo-Pacific region amidst a growing Chinese influence. This research paper assesses the effectiveness of Quad in the maritime containment of China. The paper also circulates around individual national interests that may hinder the effectiveness of Quad while also underscoring its limitations. The research was conducted using a qualitative research method. Secondary sources such as journal articles, news, and official joint statements by the alliance were consulted to formulate this paper. The alliance is subjugated to the potential impact on the future of the Indo-Pacific region. Lastly, its effectiveness is quite uncertain towards a counter balancing China and its significant implications for regional security and freedom of navigation. In terms of future prospects, the maritime security and its threats will keep on changing with evolving time.</em></p> Hamail Tahir Dr. Fouzia Amin Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 2 1 6 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss4-2023(1-6) Effectiveness of 4D/5D Scheduling in Planning for Delay Reduction in Construction Projects <p><em>Construction projects globally are frequently plagued by chronic issues such as delays and cost overruns. This study examined the feasibility of incorporating 4D (3D + time) and 5D (3D + time + cost) scheduling methodologies in construction planning with the aim of enhancing project efficiency. This study conducted an examination of the advantages associated with increased visualisation, improved task sequencing, proactive delay detection, optimised resource allocation, and integrated cost control while utilising 4D/5D building information modelling (BIM). The implementation of 4D/5D techniques has resulted in reductions in delays ranging from 15% to 50%, as evidenced by global case studies. The present study employed a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess hypothetical projects, aiming to quantify possible savings in terms of time and money. The findings reveal a decrease of 190 days and 22.4 million PKR, respectively, in these two dimensions. The adoption of 4D/5D BIM resulted in a notable increase in stakeholder satisfaction, with ratings improving from 2.6 to 4.2 out of 5. The study's findings indicate that, despite encountering several challenges, the use of 4D/5D scheduling in the Pakistani construction sector yields notable improvements in efficiency and benefits for stakeholders. The recommendations encompass the development of standardised data, software with interoperability capabilities, training programs, and collaborative initiatives within the industry. These measures are crucial for the successful implementation of 4D/5D Building Information Modelling (BIM). Additional investigation might examine the long-term return on investment, the use of these techniques in infrastructure projects, and comparison assessments with traditional methods.</em></p> Hafiz Muhammad Qamar Abbas Shahan Mehmood Cheema Dr. Muhammad Faisal Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 2 7 15 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss4-2023(7-15) "Exploring the Impact of Online Learning on Student Academic Performance in Higher Education" <p><em>This research investigates the impact of online learning on student engagement and academic performance in the higher education landscape. In a sample of 300 students from public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, the researcher examined online learning experiences, demographic factors, and academic performance. The descriptive statistics revealed moderately positive online learning experiences and moderately favorable academic performance on average, accompanied by significant variability within the sample. Correlation analysis, however, unveiled very weak and often statistically insignificant relationships between these variables, suggesting complex and non-linear dynamics at play. Consequently, we advocate for personalized support, adaptable pedagogical approaches, inclusivity, accessibility, and interdisciplinary collaboration as essential components to enhance online learning. Moreover, this study calls for continued research to unearth the intricate dynamics of online education's influence on student outcomes, driving the evolution of evidence-based practices in higher education.</em> The study underlines the necessity for continued research into online education's complex dynamics and student outcomes. This includes studying new technology, learning analytics, and pedagogical methods to inform evidence-based practices in higher education.</p> Anam Nazneen Tara Asma Tariq Yan Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 2 16 25 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss4-2023(16-25) ‘Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Impact of Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities on Job Satisfaction in Educational Professions in Pakistan’ <p><em>This study examined 'Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities in Pakistani Educational Professions,' analyses of gender discrimination, perceived disparities, and work satisfaction among professors in public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, and captures the essence of the study. The nature of the study was descriptive. A stratified random sample technique, used in survey methodology with a quantitative approach, ensures improved external validity. The population of the study was male and female university teachers in the public sector in the district of Punjab. Credible conclusions are generated using a standardized questionnaire with predetermined scales and careful statistical analysis of the information gathered from 600 teachers. The study demonstrates a negative association between perceived disparities and job happiness, reveals subtle differences among faculties, and reveals increased gender discrimination against female professors. Although there is no statistically significant in the average level of job satisfaction, the study emphasizes its practical importance by using large effect sizes. Given that the study offers practical advice for decision-makers in government and education, there is an urgent need to promote inclusive workplaces.</em></p> Asma Tariq Anam Nazneen Tara Yan Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 2 26 35 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss4-2023(26-35) A Comparative Analysis of Aspiration Errors among Postgraduate Students from Pashto and Punjabi Language Backgrounds <p><em>This research investigates pronunciation errors in English, specifically focusing on aspiration among postgraduate students from Pashto and Punjabi backgrounds at a public university in Lahore. It aims to identify the distinct pronunciation challenges faced by these groups when learning English as a second language. Voice recordings of participants reading a selected passage from "The Dreams of Tipu Sultan" by Girish Karnad are analyzed, particularly focusing on words containing aspirated sounds, like the /t/ phonic. The study includes participants from both linguistic backgrounds to ensure diversity. Analysis reveals that Pashto speakers generally demonstrate better pronunciation proficiency with fewer errors, while Punjabi speakers struggle more with aspirated sounds, notably the /t/ phonic. These findings align with existing literature, emphasizing how the native language's phonological system influences English pronunciation. The research contributes to understanding language acquisition and suggests tailored teaching approaches for diverse student populations, emphasizing the need for customized interventions to improve English proficiency among Pashto and Punjabi speakers in multicultural academic settings.</em></p> Noor Fatima Durasham Saleem Sadaf Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 2 36 46 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss4-2023(36-46) A Study of Demonstrative Determiners in Pashto <p><em>The existence of determiner phrases and their different manifestations in number, gender, and case have been studied and proved in English in many research studies. Many languages other than English need this investigation to establish a sound hypothesis about the universal language structure. This study was an attempt to find out the structure of the determiner phrase in the Pashto. It also investigated the equivalents of the English determiner phrase in the Pashto. It used the spoken corpus of Pashto as primary data. In addition, short stories and novels written by literary writers in the Pashto have been used as secondary data. Moreover, intensive group discussion with native speakers of Pashto has also been utilized as another secondary data source. The minimalist program was used to guide and understand the syntactic structure of languages. It was followed by the determiner phrase hypothesis. The hypothesis states that a noun is headed by its determiner in a noun phrase. Data were analyzed within the framework of the determiner phrase hypothesis. The study shows that a noun in the determiner phrase is not determined by a definite or indefinite article in Pashto. The determiner phrase is inflected for number, gender, and case in Pashto. Furthermore, the Pashto determiner phrase is different from English in terms of medial demonstrative determiners. The study is significant as it provides insight into the structure of the Pashto determiner phrase.</em></p> Imdad Ali Dr. Sikandr Ali Humera Sharif Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 7 2 1 12 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss3-2023(1-12) Gender Discrimination in Job Titles in English Language: A Corpus-Based Critical Study <p><em>Males and females have the same rights as members of society but females are discriminated against in terms of job titles. Fairclough's three-dimensional model was used to identify, expose, and challenge the implicit ideologies behind the use of such job titles and pronouns used after these job titles. This research is a mixed method research that aims to analyze the use of male-representing, female-representing, and neutral job titles and the use of pronouns after the use of these job titles in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>15 job titles were selected for the study. Only those job titles were selected for which female-representing and neutral job titles were available and that are more frequently used by the people. Sketch Engine was used to know the frequencies of these job titles.&nbsp; The frequencies of these job titles were compared to know what type of job titles are used more in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>The study showed that there is a big difference between the frequencies of male-representing and female-representing job titles and the frequency of male-specific pronouns is more than the frequency of female-specific pronouns after the use of male-oriented and female-oriented job titles and this leads to discrimination of females. It is suggested that job titles should be used appropriately so that no gender can be discriminated against.</em></p> Dr. Mansoor Ali Dr. Abdus Samad Mr. Tariq Amin Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 7 2 13 23 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss3-2023(13-23) Patriarchal Ideology: A Feminist Study in Pakistani Short Stories Fiction <p><em>This paper intends to examine the position of women during the patriarchal structure to become strong enough for honorable survival. We apply Gerda Lerner's creation of Patriarchy (1989) in the present study. Patriarchy provokes Women voiceless through various assumptions and ideologies. The study has been conducted through textual analysis of Pakistani Short stories while focusing on different customs and events represented by Pakistani feminists to highlight the patriarchal structures. It shows that women have been treated as objects without caring for their desires. Their disrespect for patriarchal notions may deprive them of their existence as human beings. It also pinpoints that women are oppressed, and subjugated, through patriarchal structures. We discussed female characters in the Pakistani Short story writers' works Shahrazad's Golden Leopard and Masroor's The Monkey Wound. Any struggle to get liberation from oppression results in sexist violence.</em></p> Anisa Sadiq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 7 2 24 28 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss3-2023(24-28) Impact of Students’ Ubiquitous Learning through Web 2.0 Tool on Students’ 21st Century Skills: Critical Thinking and Collaboration <p><em>Ubiquitous learning is transforming education by enabling human-focused learning through seamless access to resources from anywhere. In addition, these tools enhance context understanding and make it easy to interact between real and digital learning resources, all while offering individualized learning opportunities. This research surveyed public sector university teachers in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to gather their opinions on how Web 2.0 tools and ubiquitous learning are affecting the development of 21st-century learning skills in students. The research aimed to assess the impact of Web 2.0 tools for ubiquitous learning (UL) on the critical thinking and collaboration skills of graduate-level students. To collect data, the study administered a self-developed questionnaire with 50 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale to 500 university teachers. This constituted the primary data for the research. According to the findings, ubiquitous learning has a noteworthy effect on fostering critical thinking and collaboration skills in university students. To make ubiquitous learning successful, both private and public sector universities must have adequate ICT infrastructure and provide teacher training that focuses on ICT-based teaching methods. The study can assist university teachers in establishing a ubiquitous learning (UL) environment that employs web 2.0 tools, thereby enabling students to effectively enhance their 21st-century learning skills, including critical thinking and collaboration.</em></p> Dr. Safia Urooj Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shahid Farooq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 7 2 29 43 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss3-2023(29-43) Students’ Perspective on Digital Education Interventions During COVID-19 Pandemic and Academic Performance of University Students in Punjab <p><em>This study aimed to comprehensively assess university students' perspectives on digital education during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on academic performance. It focused on gauging satisfaction with digital learning, identifying challenges faced, and providing insights for future educational strategies. Sampling 1,309 students from Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts departments across six public sector universities, the study revealed that female students exhibited greater awareness of online learning. While gender didn't affect computer skills or gadget availability, more females had reliable internet access (51%) compared to males (43%). Challenges included connectivity issues, time management, and power outages. Students expressed moderate satisfaction with study environments and support, signaling a need for improved online education solutions. Regional variations underscored the necessity for tailored strategies to address disparities in perceptions and experiences across different areas.</em></p> Imtiaz Alam Dr. Hamid Khan Niazi Dr. Muhammad Khalid Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 7 2 44 55 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss3-2023(44-55) Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance A Moderated Mediation Model <p><em>The current study examined the relationship of Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance with the mediating role of Career Motivation. In addition, psychological capital was used as a moderated mediator in the model. The survey approach was used, both the hard copies and online application link were shared with respondents for their response. The data was collected from 433 respondents from the government departments with grade 17 and above using convenience sampling technique. Career motivation mediated the relationship between ostracism and façade of conformity and between the ostracism and the employee’s performance. The interaction effect of ostracism and psychological capital was insignificant on career motivation. The mediators had an indirect effect on these relationships but this mediation model was not moderated by the psychological capital. The organization shall develop such policies which may provide the opportunities to employees for better interaction like get together, group competition, morning meeting and plan for action so that an employee does not feel isolated.</em></p> Azizullah Kakar Prof. Dr. Jahanvash Karim Prof. Dr. Zainab Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 93 106 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(93-106) The Psychological Impact of Domestic Violence on Teenage Development in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus <p><em>Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Purple Hibiscus shows how Kambili and Jaja, two teenage siblings, ultimately develop a tendency to combat their psychological tensions in a domestically abused environment under the God-like dictatorship of their father. Their father’s extremely imposing attitude induces anxiety in both teenagers while subjugating their necessary freedom.&nbsp; The research focuses on the development of both siblings as adolescents, as adolescence is an important phase of life in developing a person’s individuality. The work attempts to show the necessary transition in both siblings, Kambili and Jaja, leading to a healthy growth process as they display defiance to overcome the psychologically traumatic experience.</em></p> Ifrah Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 107 114 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(107-114) The Political Rhetoric in the Pre and Post-Election (2013) Speeches of Imran Khan <p><em>The study is a political rhetorical analysis of the pre and post-election 2013 speeches of Imran &nbsp;&nbsp;Khan. The study explores the use of five canons of Aristotelian rhetoric i.e. Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery and Memory by the Pakistan politician. Also, the study presents a comparative analysis of the pre and post-election speeches. A total of 16 speeches of Imran Khan, 8 speeches from pre and post-election eras each were examined to collect data. The data was divided into both numerical and narrative data sets according to themes developed based on the Aristotelian Classical Theory of Rhetoric. The frequency count for the recurrent data was also evaluated to provide in-depth knowledge of the most recurring rhetorical device. In addition to frequency tables, the study was also illustrated with graphs to envision the reader with the graphical representation of the comparative analysis of the pre and post-election data. The analysis of the data exposes that Imran Khan effectively employed the canons of Classical Rhetoric. Imran Khan used Invention to construct arguments with assistance from the three modes of persuasion i.e. logos, ethos and pathos. From the analysis, it was exposed that Imran Khan used logos (logic) mostly to discover and present arguments both in Pre and Post-election speeches. The arrangement was used to organize the speech in a meaningful manner to intact the interests of the audience. The style was employed to intensify the integrity of the arguments presented. Moreover, the analysis revealed that among the stylistic devices, tropes were used most frequently by the speaker. The canon of delivery was employed to create speeches to be more effective for the listeners. The analysis of the speeches revealed that Imran Khan used falling and rising intonation to make his arguments sound like phenomena for his listeners. Lastly, the canon of memory showed that Imran Khan employed mnemonic devices to bring support to his arguments. The study's findings revealed that Imran Khan successfully employed Aristotelian Rhetoric to present his propositions attractively among his audiences. Keeping in view the limitations, the study nevertheless contributes to the teaching of the art of public speaking and inculcates the political figures of Pakistan to enhance their speech deliverance strategies.</em></p> Dr. Sara Khan Sumaira Saleem Dr. Saima Chattha Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 115 125 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(115-125) An Impact of Explicit Teaching of Reading Strategies on the Reading Motivation of Pakistani ESL Learners <p><em>Researchers advise teachers to help students develop a passion for reading to enhance their reading abilities. This action research aims to ascertain the effect of explicit teaching of reading strategies on Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners. The students received explicit reading strategy instruction over a four-month period in two cycles. The data was gathered with the help of a questionnaire i.e. Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) before and after the intervention stage. The findings show that teaching reading strategies&nbsp;explicitly ensures a positive impact on students’ motivation to read. As a result, it is discovered that students can get motivated to read if they are familiar with reading strategies, but what is the&nbsp;primary step to create initially is an interactive and interesting environment in the classroom. This study is important for language educators and teacher educators who want to motivate students. It additionally reinforces the usefulness of various existing reading strategies&nbsp;for motivating learners at a Pakistani private institution.</em></p> Zehra Hasan Dr. Bushra Ahmed Khurram Amna Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 126 137 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(126-137) An investigation into Dichotomy of Teachers’ Professional Inputs and Parents’ Satisfaction in Public Sector Schools <p><em>Teachers’ professionalism is a backbone of school culture. The parents, whose children experience the school’s culture, determine their level of satisfaction. Therefore, a school is a place where teachers’ professional level affects not only its own culture but also determine parents’ dissatisfaction. Our study explores teachers’ professionalism which shapes up school’s culture that consequently make the children’s parents dis/satisfied about schools. We used exploratory design for collecting qualitative data to achieve the objectives. Thematic approach was used for analyzing the data. An interview protocol was developed as a research instrument and by using purposive sampling data were collected from 10 teachers and 05 parents. The results concluded that majority of the primary school teachers seem us less professional which ultimately puts adverse effects on school culture and also makes the children’s parents less satisfied. The study recommends that school culture of our primary schools need to be improved by developing professionalism among teachers through introducing them professional courses in their in-service training programs, up grading their status for making a teaching profession more attractive for the mass of people in Pakistani society.</em></p> Shah Faisal Nawaz Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan Iram Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 138 147 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(138-147) Influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood <p><em>R. G. Collingwood is supposed to be one of the most important Aesthetes of 20<sup>th</sup> Century. He was a multi-talented person having original ideas in the fields of Philosophical History (his most famous book is ‘Idea of History’), Aesthetics and Anthropology. He was a practitioner in the field of Archaeology and Music. His second most famous book is ‘Principles of Art.’ He is supposed to be an original philosopher of Art too. His Philosophy of Art has much to do and has much connections with the Aesthetics of Immanuel Kant. Kant was a multi-dimensional genius, presenting before the world very original and outstanding ideas about Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics and also Aesthetics. This article is an attempt to understand the influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood and to present before the readers the great similarities between the Aesthetic ideas of these two philosophers. According to Kant, Aesthetics is the fourth most important function of human mind. Apart from pure reasoning, pragmatic thinking and moral concerns, Aesthetics is that aspect of human mind which deals with beauty. The problem with the Aesthetics of Kant or the Aesthetics of Collingwood is that both of the philosophers present Aesthetics as the divider and in the humble opinion of the writer of this article it is not divider but a connector – connector of moral, pragmatic and pure reason.</em></p> Dr. Muhmmad Jawwad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 148 152 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(148-152)