sjesr <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research en-US sjesr 2706-8285 Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance A Moderated Mediation Model <p><em>The current study examined the relationship of Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance with the mediating role of Career Motivation. In addition, psychological capital was used as a moderated mediator in the model. The survey approach was used, both the hard copies and online application link were shared with respondents for their response. The data was collected from 433 respondents from the government departments with grade 17 and above using convenience sampling technique. Career motivation mediated the relationship between ostracism and façade of conformity and between the ostracism and the employee’s performance. The interaction effect of ostracism and psychological capital was insignificant on career motivation. The mediators had an indirect effect on these relationships but this mediation model was not moderated by the psychological capital. The organization shall develop such policies which may provide the opportunities to employees for better interaction like get together, group competition, morning meeting and plan for action so that an employee does not feel isolated.</em></p> Azizullah Kakar Prof. Dr. Jahanvash Karim Prof. Dr. Zainab Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 93 106 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(93-106) The Psychological Impact of Domestic Violence on Teenage Development in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus <p><em>Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Purple Hibiscus shows how Kambili and Jaja, two teenage siblings, ultimately develop a tendency to combat their psychological tensions in a domestically abused environment under the God-like dictatorship of their father. Their father’s extremely imposing attitude induces anxiety in both teenagers while subjugating their necessary freedom.&nbsp; The research focuses on the development of both siblings as adolescents, as adolescence is an important phase of life in developing a person’s individuality. The work attempts to show the necessary transition in both siblings, Kambili and Jaja, leading to a healthy growth process as they display defiance to overcome the psychologically traumatic experience.</em></p> Ifrah Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 107 114 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(107-114) The Political Rhetoric in the Pre and Post-Election (2013) Speeches of Imran Khan <p><em>The study is a political rhetorical analysis of the pre and post-election 2013 speeches of Imran &nbsp;&nbsp;Khan. The study explores the use of five canons of Aristotelian rhetoric i.e. Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery and Memory by the Pakistan politician. Also, the study presents a comparative analysis of the pre and post-election speeches. A total of 16 speeches of Imran Khan, 8 speeches from pre and post-election eras each were examined to collect data. The data was divided into both numerical and narrative data sets according to themes developed based on the Aristotelian Classical Theory of Rhetoric. The frequency count for the recurrent data was also evaluated to provide in-depth knowledge of the most recurring rhetorical device. In addition to frequency tables, the study was also illustrated with graphs to envision the reader with the graphical representation of the comparative analysis of the pre and post-election data. The analysis of the data exposes that Imran Khan effectively employed the canons of Classical Rhetoric. Imran Khan used Invention to construct arguments with assistance from the three modes of persuasion i.e. logos, ethos and pathos. From the analysis, it was exposed that Imran Khan used logos (logic) mostly to discover and present arguments both in Pre and Post-election speeches. The arrangement was used to organize the speech in a meaningful manner to intact the interests of the audience. The style was employed to intensify the integrity of the arguments presented. Moreover, the analysis revealed that among the stylistic devices, tropes were used most frequently by the speaker. The canon of delivery was employed to create speeches to be more effective for the listeners. The analysis of the speeches revealed that Imran Khan used falling and rising intonation to make his arguments sound like phenomena for his listeners. Lastly, the canon of memory showed that Imran Khan employed mnemonic devices to bring support to his arguments. The study's findings revealed that Imran Khan successfully employed Aristotelian Rhetoric to present his propositions attractively among his audiences. Keeping in view the limitations, the study nevertheless contributes to the teaching of the art of public speaking and inculcates the political figures of Pakistan to enhance their speech deliverance strategies.</em></p> Dr. Sara Khan Sumaira Saleem Dr. Saima Chattha Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 115 125 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(115-125) An Impact of Explicit Teaching of Reading Strategies on the Reading Motivation of Pakistani ESL Learners <p><em>Researchers advise teachers to help students develop a passion for reading to enhance their reading abilities. This action research aims to ascertain the effect of explicit teaching of reading strategies on Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners. The students received explicit reading strategy instruction over a four-month period in two cycles. The data was gathered with the help of a questionnaire i.e. Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) before and after the intervention stage. The findings show that teaching reading strategies&nbsp;explicitly ensures a positive impact on students’ motivation to read. As a result, it is discovered that students can get motivated to read if they are familiar with reading strategies, but what is the&nbsp;primary step to create initially is an interactive and interesting environment in the classroom. This study is important for language educators and teacher educators who want to motivate students. It additionally reinforces the usefulness of various existing reading strategies&nbsp;for motivating learners at a Pakistani private institution.</em></p> Zehra Hasan Dr. Bushra Ahmed Khurram Amna Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 126 137 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(126-137) An investigation into Dichotomy of Teachers’ Professional Inputs and Parents’ Satisfaction in Public Sector Schools <p><em>Teachers’ professionalism is a backbone of school culture. The parents, whose children experience the school’s culture, determine their level of satisfaction. Therefore, a school is a place where teachers’ professional level affects not only its own culture but also determine parents’ dissatisfaction. Our study explores teachers’ professionalism which shapes up school’s culture that consequently make the children’s parents dis/satisfied about schools. We used exploratory design for collecting qualitative data to achieve the objectives. Thematic approach was used for analyzing the data. An interview protocol was developed as a research instrument and by using purposive sampling data were collected from 10 teachers and 05 parents. The results concluded that majority of the primary school teachers seem us less professional which ultimately puts adverse effects on school culture and also makes the children’s parents less satisfied. The study recommends that school culture of our primary schools need to be improved by developing professionalism among teachers through introducing them professional courses in their in-service training programs, up grading their status for making a teaching profession more attractive for the mass of people in Pakistani society.</em></p> Shah Faisal Nawaz Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan Iram Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 138 147 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(138-147) Influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood <p><em>R. G. Collingwood is supposed to be one of the most important Aesthetes of 20<sup>th</sup> Century. He was a multi-talented person having original ideas in the fields of Philosophical History (his most famous book is ‘Idea of History’), Aesthetics and Anthropology. He was a practitioner in the field of Archaeology and Music. His second most famous book is ‘Principles of Art.’ He is supposed to be an original philosopher of Art too. His Philosophy of Art has much to do and has much connections with the Aesthetics of Immanuel Kant. Kant was a multi-dimensional genius, presenting before the world very original and outstanding ideas about Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics and also Aesthetics. This article is an attempt to understand the influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood and to present before the readers the great similarities between the Aesthetic ideas of these two philosophers. According to Kant, Aesthetics is the fourth most important function of human mind. Apart from pure reasoning, pragmatic thinking and moral concerns, Aesthetics is that aspect of human mind which deals with beauty. The problem with the Aesthetics of Kant or the Aesthetics of Collingwood is that both of the philosophers present Aesthetics as the divider and in the humble opinion of the writer of this article it is not divider but a connector – connector of moral, pragmatic and pure reason.</em></p> Dr. Muhmmad Jawwad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 148 152 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(148-152) Perceptions of College Principals and Faculty Members Regarding Administrative Problems and Job Performance <p>Efficient administration of educational institutions is vital for their advancement and growth. Principals play a key role in providing conducive environment for instruction and students’ academic achievement. This study aims to examine the viewpoints of college principals and faculty members regarding the challenges faced in administration and their performance as college principal. A quantitative approach was used to investigate this research problem, employing a descriptive survey design to gather and analyse data. The research study focused on principals and faculty members from government degree and postgraduate colleges for boys and girls in the Malakand Division, Pakistan. A sample of 140 faculty members and 28 principals was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Data from the participants were collected by using a self-developed questionnaire, which was validated by a panel of experts and its reliability was found through Cronbach’s alpha values which were found for administrative problems and job performance as 0.732 and 0.856 respectively. The study results showed that college principals faced various administrative problem included problems related to teaching and learning process, lack of availability of resources, maintaining good relationship with community, lack of financial resources, lack of capacity building programmes, and political interference. These administrative problems in turn effect lack of exhibiting instructional leadership, evaluating teachers and students’ performance, maintaining conducive working environment, preparing and utilizing budget, and implementing policies. Capacity building and continuous professional development programmes may be worthwhile strategies for improving the administrative, managerial and leadership roles of college principals.</p> Iqbal Amin Khan Sami ul Haq Faridullah Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-26 2023-06-26 6 2 85 92 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(85-92) Managing Diabetes at Household Level; A case study of Diabetic Patients in Rawalpindi City <p><em>In the middle- and low-income developing countries like Pakistan treatment of diabetes is very expensive and people can’t afford the cost of medications in this way households face many financial hardships. Therefore, the study was focused on how cultural myths influence the patients in managing diabetes at household level to avoid the use of medications. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship of treatment cost and household budget and further to explore the cultural myths in regards to managing diabetes. The study was carried out in Cantonment area of Rawalpindi city. Further the research study was qualitative in nature and selecting 20 diabetic patients through purposive sampling technique of non-probability sampling type. Moreover, for this study research methodology was exploratory and data were collected through face-to-face interview. Interview has been recorded with due permission of the respondents and transcribed in order to analyze or generate various themes. In this study findings identified in six theme, mode of treatment, affordability of treatment, bearing of expenditure, budget disturbance, Cultural belief and practices, and Cultural myths in management of diabetes. these were found that patients who bear expenses on self without any health insurance or not having any panel of hospital facing issue to manage the diabetes. Due to costly medicines their household budget was badly disturbed and most of them let the visit of doctor, use medication only once in a day just to pass the whole month from these medicines. Further most of the patients never conduct hba1c test regularly and the reason is non-affordability of test cost. Only those who are on the panel of certain hospitals conduct this test after every three months. Furthermore, due to costly medications patients looking for alternative solutions as they choose cultural belief and myths to control diabetes just to satisfy the self.</em></p> Iqra Riasat Mahwish Zeeshan Dr. Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 6 2 71 84 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(71-84) Violence against Women: A comparative study of Islamic (with reference to Pakistan) and non-Islamic Jurisdictions <p><em>The present study aims to examine the evil of violence against women within different cultures of the world. The research focuses on conducting a comparative analysis to shed light on the patterns of violence experienced by women in Islamic and non-Islamic contexts. The study explores various forms of violence, including physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, with respect to, domestic violence, sexual assault, honour-based violence, familial abuse, discriminatory practices and cultural injustices. By examining the experiences of women across different cultural, social, and economic backgrounds, this study seeks to identify effective measures to address and prevent violence against women. Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, this study contributes to the broader understanding of violence against women and provides valuable insights, strategies and policies for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates working towards gender equality and the eradication of violence against women. The study has followed the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> Farah Amir Nadia Noreen Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 6 2 63 70 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(63-70) The study "Unravelling the Impact: Assessing the Impacts of Rising Rates of Interest and Inflation on Individual Finances" <p><em>The impact of rising interest rates and hyperinflation on personal finances is examined in this abstract. It draws attention to how these two economic aspects are interconnected and what it means for people's financial security. This abstract offers insights into how changes in mortgage rates and inflation affect personal finances by looking at the impact on costs of borrowing, deposits, savings, and purchasing power. The link between rate of interest and borrowing costs is the first topic covered in the abstract. When interest rates increase, borrowing money becomes increasingly costly for people, which has an impact on many facets of personal finances like credit card debt, home loans, and auto loans. According to the abstract, increasing borrowing costs can result in bigger debt loads, decreased affordability, and possible difficulties with debt payback. The abstract also looks at how inflation affects people's personal budgets. Over time, inflation reduces the monetary value of money, raising the cost of goods and services. The abstract focuses on how inflationary affects the costs of living, covering necessities like housing, food, and medical care. It emphasizes how crucial it is to factor inflation into long-term financial planning and budgeting in order to preserve financial stability and lessen the loss of wealth. The abstract also discusses how the rate of interest and inflation interact. It illustrates how interest rates are frequently employed by central banks as a tool to manage inflation. By decreasing consumption and slowing economic expansion, an increase in financing costs can help control inflation. However, this additionally has a negative impact on a person's personal finances, especially if they have investments or loans with variable rates or loans that are susceptible to changes in interest rates. The abstract also looks at ways that people might manage the effects of inflation and higher interest rates on their personal budgets. It talks on the value of financial literacy, investment diversification, responsible management of debt, and proactive steps like refinancing or modifying spending patterns to accommodate shifting economic conditions. </em></p> Mohsan Ali Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 6 2 56 62 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(56-62) Emotional Intelligence: Understanding, Assessing, and Cultivating the Key to Personal and Professional Success <p><em>A complicated idea that has received a lot of attention in workplace behavior and psychology is emotional intelligence (EI). It includes the capacity to recognize, comprehend, control, and make use of one's own and other people's emotions. The components of emotional intelligence, how it is measured, and how it affects societal and individual functioning are all covered in this brief. Emotional perception, or effectively identifying and understanding emotions, is the first aspect of emotional intelligence. Other skills, such as emotional comprehension, which entails understanding the origins and effects of emotions, are built upon this ability. Emotional management is the capacity to manage and regulate one's own feelings, resulting in flexible reactions and better judgment. Utilizing emotions to promote problem-solving, creativity, and relationship-building is another aspect of emotional intelligence. To gauge emotional intelligence, several self-report and ability-based tests have been devised. While ability-based tests evaluate achievement overall tasks needing emotional competency, self-report methods ask participants to rate their own emotional skills. These evaluations offer insightful information on emotional strengths and deficits, enabling focused therapy. According to research, emotional intelligence has a big influence on how people perform. It is related to expanded leadership potential, better leadership skills, and better work output. Relationships are more likely to succeed and be rewarding for those with greater emotional intelligence since these people often have superior social skills, sympathy, and methods for resolving disputes. Additionally essential in social settings, emotional intelligence promotes collaboration, teamwork, and successful dispute resolution.</em></p> Muhammad Habib Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi Mohsan Ali Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 6 2 50 55 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(50-55) Comparison to Perceptions of Teachers and Head Teachers about Accountability Measures for Public School Improvement in Punjab <p><em>Every government faces the pressure of quality and accountability as it has become an international agenda. Countries are shaping their policies according to the interest of stakeholders in globalization and international competition. They plan to establish high-performing school systems. Developed and developing countries are also struggling with this movement to ensure the quality and accountability of schools. Different accountability approaches are in practice. Mixed methods research design opted for using an interview protocol and sur\vey with 2220 participants from public elementary schools. A pragmatic approach selected for reliability, and validity was assured while using a triangulation design. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were performed for the analysis of data. It concluded that educational accountability is a challenging job. Data revealed an ambiguity in the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, teachers, head teachers, parents, students, and district administration. Assign duties may be clarified, and responsible persons may be considered answerable. Some policies are there, but these are in practice in a different sense. Implementation of policies may be authenticated. When students' achievement is considered the main drive of school effectiveness, and schools are rated accountable for results to nurture positive change. More than achievement in numbers alone is required for quality education, as this can easily be achieved through misreporting. For quality and improvement over time, some prime features like creativity and higher-order thinking skills are mandatory. In different situations, there may be other yardsticks to judge students' personality traits like teamwork, commitment, and emotional adjustment.</em> <em>School teachers and head teachers had recommended replacing test-based accountability with performance-based accountability to amplify student learning and success.</em></p> Sofia Jabeen Samaira Zulifqar Ali Dr. Ishra Batool Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 6 2 36 49 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(36-49) Comparing the Performance of Private and Public Sector Mutual Funds: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Returns <p>Increasing interest towards mutual funds has significantly attracted attentions of the researchers, investors in mutual fund scheme. Similarly, investment opportunities and interest towards mutual funds have also increased in Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of the research was to empirically analyse and understand the changes in performance of private and public sector of Pakistan Mutual fund. For conducting this research, researcher has relied on secondary quantitative information, and data has been derived from MUFAP on 1 private company (i.e. Al Meezan Investment Management Limited) and 1 public company (i.e. ABL Cash Fund). For data analysis, statistical tools including correlation, and T-test were used through using SPSS software. Findings show that there is a significance difference in performance of both private and public sector. As NAV and return in private sector is found to be statistically different from public sector. Additionally, risk in mutual fund of private sector is also found to be statistically different from public sector. Further, findings in the current research have also shows a negative association between return and risk of both private and public mutual funds. Findings in the current research can be used to fill a gap in previous studies. Further, findings in the current research can also be used in future studies through increasing sample size, and other factors. Moreover, it can also be used for cross countries, companies, and region.</p> Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi Mohsan Ali Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 6 2 29 35 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(29-35) A Comprehensive Examination of the Concept of Women Rights in Islam, along with a Concise Comparative Analysis of Legal Systems in other Nations: Exploring the Clash of Narratives <p><em>This paper intends to offer a thorough and comprehensive examination of the concept of women rights, considering various perspectives and conducting comparative analysis with the legal philosophy of other nations. The research examines conflicting myths about women rights within Islamic societies, seeking to put light on the relevant complexities. By analysing the ideologies, interpretations and cultural impacts, this research seeks to present a cogent review of the concept of women rights. The significance of this study lies in its contribution to a better understanding of the complexities surrounding the concept of women rights in Islamic civilizations, and how they differ from legal frameworks of other nations. By conducting this interdisciplinary analysis, the research offers valuable insights towards the evolving nature of women rights within Islamic background and facilitates a deeper appreciation of the resemblances and differences across various legal frameworks. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for a true understanding of women's rights in Islam and the importance of contextualizing them within the broader global discourse. The study contributes to a more informed and inclusive dialogue on women rights and gender equality, fostering an environment conducive to respectful engagement and constructive reform. The study has adopted the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> Amjad Hussain Rizwana Gul Aas Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 6 2 18 28 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(18-28) Imran Khan and Z.A. Bhutto: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistani Political Speeches <p><em>Critical Discourse Analysis elucidates the text, language, social customs, hidden agendas, and linguistic twists. Politicians manipulate language in such a way that people's sentiments and emotions connect with politicians. In political debates, CDA has been used to showcase the speech style behind all these and every sort of discourse that can be employed to control the sentiment expressed to the audience (Roffee, 2016). Fairclough's study of the three-dimensional model: text, discursive practices, and societal practices influenced this study. This research examines how political speeches by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Imran Khan are constructed and how ideology emerges. Various linguistic tools have been investigated to uncover hidden agendas. The major findings in Imran Khan's power projection are his excessive use of religious and political implications and personal pronouns to gain and show his power. Power is discovered to be constructed via language, ideology, society, and political practices. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's speech focuses on the right of countries to self-determination. Both UN speeches were watershed moments in Pakistani history, reflecting existing political ideologies and societal factors. The speeches demonstrate how language can build persuasive arguments and communicate important ideas beyond words.</em></p> Sarah Anjum Muhammad Sabboor Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 6 2 11 17 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(11-17) Exploring Stigmatizing Discourses of Mental Illness in Pakistani Newspapers through CDA Lens in Psychology <p><em>Mental health stigma remains a significant challenge in Pakistan, contributing to negative attitudes, behaviours and outcomes for people with mental illness. The present study aims to analyse stigmatizing discourses of mental illness in Pakistani English newspapers using the three-dimensional model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). A sample of newspaper headlines published between 2015 and 2023 was selected and analysed using the CDA framework. The results revealed that stigmatizing discourses were prevalent in these newspapers including labelling, anthologizing, stereotyping and marginalizing. These discourses reflected broader social and cultural factors such as cultural norms, beliefs and power relations. The findings also highlight the need for more effective policies and interventions aimed at reducing mental health stigma in Pakistan and promoting a more inclusive understanding of mental illness. The study also provides valuable insights into the role of the media in shaping public perceptions towards mental illness in Pakistan and can inform the development of more responsible media practices as well as more comprehensive mental health policies.</em></p> Maham Zehra Farzana Khan Shumaila Naureen Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 6 2 1 10 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss2-2023(1-10) Level of Academic Stress and its Influence on the Academic Achievements of Students at Mirpur University of Science and Technology <p><em>Academic Stress among university students is a major problem that may negatively affect their grades. Students often experience academic pressure because of the difficulties they face at the university level. This quantitative study aims to evaluate the level of academic stress among the students of Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, and its effect on their academic achievements. For this purpose, the causal-comparative research design was used, and the “Academic Stress Scale for University Students” (Noreen et al., 2021) was administered to assess the levels of stress experienced by 331 participants (202 male and 129 female students, stratified by degree level). The CGPA of students was taken as a measure of their academic achievements. SPSS 25 was used to run a t-test and linear regression analysis on the collected data. The findings showed that both male and female students experience similar levels of academic stress with no significant difference between the two groups. Furthermore, the study found that academic stress has little (but not significant) impact on students’ academic achievements, as it only accounts for a small portion of the variation. These results suggest that while academic stress is a concern, it may not be a major factor in students’ academic achievements at MUST.</em></p> Masood ur Rehman Syed Jawad Zareen Shah Sher Bano Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-04-04 2023-04-04 6 2 169 175 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(169-175) An Axiological Discussion: Address Forms as Reflectors of Values in Multilinguals <p><em>The paper attempts to provide an overview of the value system in addressing practice of multilingual speakers. Scholars' interest in this area is not accidental rather deliberations in the field have turned it into interdisciplinary linguistic research. The awareness or knowledge of value (axiology) systems reflect several mechanisms from socio-cultural perspectives, consequently promoting mutual sharing and understanding of community or society. In this paper, we have drawn a philosophical discussion on multilingual cognition by addressing practices in global contexts. The paper aims to explore the worldview of multilinguals in address forms. The study objectives are based on the literature available on the topic. We highlighted the scope, definitions, perspectives, and advancements in axiological theories and approaches. We also turn our attention related to ideas with axiology from theoretical and methodological contributions and advancements in research. The paper concludes the discussion by summarizing facts that culture and linguistic identity observed in the usage of address forms. Thus, the study concludes a short overview of the axiology of multilingual speakers and their reflection on communication behaviour.</em></p> Muhammad Arif Soomro Mukhtiar Ali Rajper Mansoor Ali Koondhar Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 147 158 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(147-158) Sustainable Teaching: Analysis of Teachers’ Competencies in Inclusive Education <p><em>The purpose of current research study is to explore the level of awareness and knowledge of primary school level regular and special education teacher, working in an inclusive classroom setting for both typically diversified learners and individuals with special educational needs. The terminology "integrated" was changed to "inclusive," and the term diversity’ replaced ‘disability’. The basic objective of this current research study is to explore the awareness and knowledge of teachers working at primary school level in normal and special education teachers, working in an inclusive education setting for both typically diversified learners and individuals with special educational needs. This study is based on an investigation of teachers’ knowledge and awareness regarding diversity and inclusive education. A purposive design has been included in the general education sectors. a questionnaire for data collection was completed online.&nbsp; Responded (n = 50) by teachers' knowledge about inclusion of diversified individuals, a statistical analysis was combined with the data obtained through a questionnaire. According to research on inclusive education, researchers suggest that, without knowledge and proper training, effective inclusion cannot take place in regular classrooms, regardless of how excellent the infrastructure of the building, educational policy, and how well-resourced it may be. As a result, teachers must know about inclusive education and aware to modify their lessons for diversity, give them tailored education, collaborate with professionals and parents, using modern techniques to supportt learners to resolved the issues, and overcome the weaknesses.</em></p> Sajid Nadeem Khan Khosa Dr. Muhammad Shakir Dr. Erum Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 159 168 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(159-168) Inclusive Education Can Bring Change: The Impact of Factors Influencing Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Private and Public Secondary Schools of Karachi <p><em>Teachers must have a positive outlook and be dedicated to the tasks they undertake if they are to succeed in inclusive education. It is vital to ensure that all students have an inclusive future in the classroom. Teachers play an iconic role in implementing inclusive education. The successful execution of inclusive education is primarily attributable to teachers' attitudes toward inclusion policies. This study aims to investigate the impact of Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) on Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education Scale (TAIS). This study employed two different TEIP Scale and TAIS Scale for examining their relationships. This cross-sectional comparative study also seeks to determine the impact of factors influencing teachers' views toward inclusive education. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 25. The participants included (n=215) secondary school teachers from the private and public schools in Karachi. ANOVA, regression, and one sample t-test were used comparing the factors influencing teachers' views towards inclusion and explore the effect of TEIP on TAIS in public and private secondary schools. The findings show that the secondary school teachers of the private institutions had a significantly more favourable attitude towards inclusive education than secondary school teachers in public institutions. TEIP and TAIS were correlated using the Pearson Correlation test (TEIP). It demonstrates that teachers' attitude toward inclusive education is positively linked with Teachers’ Efficacy to Use Inclusive Instructions (EUII), Efficacy in Cooperation (EC), and Efficacy in Dealing with Disruptive Behaviors (EDDB). This study reveals that there is a significantly positive impact of EUII, EC, and EDDB on TAIS.</em></p> Shameer Khokhar Manzoor Ahmed Dr. Shah Mir Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 176 186 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(176-186) Impact of Learning Environment on Academic Performance of Students at Secondary Level <p><em>The main objective of this research study was to find out the effect of the learning environment on the academic performance of students at the Higher Secondary Level in the district Dera Ghazi Khan. The population of this study is the students studying in higher secondary schools, private colleges, and Government colleges of the 12th class. The sample size of this research study was1070. A search tool was adopted. The data was collected by the researcher through visiting the Institutions physically. The collected data were tabulated, organized, and was entered in the SPSS. The research study was analyzed through descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. The findings of this study show that there was a significant difference in the perception of male and female students about the effect of the learning environment.&nbsp; Private colleges provide a more learning environment to the students as compared to public institutions. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that schools should provide basic facilities like library furniture electricity and better seating arrangements.&nbsp; Students should be given opportunities to develop their confidence through debates.</em></p> Erum Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 187 195 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(187-195) Assessment Practices for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: The Perception of Pre-service Teachers in District Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan <p><em>Mathematics plays a vital role in academics as well as in the everyday lives of individuals. Moreover, it is considered the most complicated and tough academic subject among students due to its complexity. Whereas, in terms of teaching and assessment strategies, mathematical conceptualization is also one of the most challenging aspects among teachers. In the classroom, mostly pedagogical and traditional assessment practices develop students' negative attitudes towards mathematics. Similarly, assessment in mathematics is an integral part of teaching and learning, but it is usually viewed as a problematic part of the instructional task. There is considerable evidence that teachers' beliefs about mathematics assessment impact their teaching of mathematics. This study aims to identify the perceived approaches to assessment in the mathematics classroom and analyze the effective domains of assessment in the mathematics classroom by pre-service teachers in Khairpur. Therefore, to explore this perspective, this study has been conducted with pre-service teachers to analyze their perceptions regarding assessment practices for mathematics. The qualitative research methods employed in this study and the qualitative data collected through a structured interview protocol. The sample of study comprises five pre-service teachers from district Sukkur, Sindh. In an effort to address the research questions, thematic analysis has been used. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicated that the different perceptions of pre-service teachers about assessment in mathematics range from traditional to constructive, which highlights the importance of teaching approaches that focus on formative assessment in the math classroom along with summative assessment in a constructive way. It is recommended that formative assessment be used during the teaching and learning process of mathematics because formative assessment is more effective than summative assessment.</em>Moreover, <em>the study suggests that teachers should adopt some effective strategies for assessment of mathematics.</em></p> Sehar Mangi Amjad Ali Rind Shazma Nindwani Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 196 205 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(196-205) Online Math Education during Covid-19 and Associated Learning Anxiety at the Tertiary Level in Pakistan <p><em>A survey method was used to investigate the effect of online math education and students anxiety of learning Mathematics in COVID-19 at university level in Lahore. The basic purpose to design this study was to explore students’ anxiety measures and introduce some coping strategies to minimize the students’ anxiety in online learning math education. All students of graduate and post-graduate level in all public and private universities of Lahore were considered as population of the study. By using convenient sampling technique 500 students were selected from 4 public and 4 private universities. A standardized instrument ‘Mathematics Anxiety Scale’ was adapted after validity and reliability tests. The results showed a strong positive relationship between online Math education and students’ anxiety of learning mathematics. The online math education has statistically significance variance on students’ anxiety of learning mathematics. Therefore, a significant medium effect size was found between public and private universities in online learning </em>mathematics. <em>Therefore Mathematics anxiety effects not only cognitively and physiologically but directly manifests emotionally so to reduce it learners needs to avoid negative talk and focus on positive reinforcement.</em></p> Namirah Aslam Shagufta Moghal Shabana Manzoor Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 6 2 206 212 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(206-212) Domestic Violence: The Psychological and Legal Factors That Affect Reporting, Prosecution, and Sentencing <p><em>The article highlights the pervasive problem of domestic violence worldwide and the need for a comprehensive understanding of the psychological and legal factors that contribute to it. The psychological factors include individual and cultural beliefs about gender roles, mental health issues, and substance abuse, which can affect reporting and recovery. Legal factors such as insufficient resources, victim blaming, weak sentencing guidelines, and lack of consistency in enforcing protective orders can compound the challenges faced by victims. The article recommends several strategies to address these challenges, including increasing funding and resources for domestic violence programs and services, providing comprehensive training for law enforcement, increasing public awareness, developing consistent sentencing guidelines, improving enforcement of protective orders, and providing trauma-informed care for victims. The article emphasizes the need for a collaborative effort from stakeholders across the criminal justice system and the broader community to create an effective and compassionate response that prioritizes victim safety, holds offenders accountable, and promotes healing and recovery.</em></p> Abdus Samad Khan Sobia Bashir Faisal Shehzad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 6 2 139 146 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(139-146) Analysing the Perceptions of Teachers’ and Parents’ on the Causes and Consequences of Slow Learners’ Early Learning Difficulties in Karachi Pakistan <p><em>The development of a nation cannot occur without first addressing the issues of education. Students can learn at varying speeds, from very quickly to quite slowly. Children who fall below the norm for their age group in terms of cognitive development are categorized as slow learners. They have trouble meeting the academic standards of a traditional classroom setting. Educators and researchers from all around the world are beginning to clarify the components of slow learning and conduct extensive studies on slow learners at all levels of schooling. This research looks at pre-schoolers who are slow learners in specific areas of Karachi, as well as the activities and beliefs of both parents and educators that contribute to the problem. </em><em>The purpose of this research was to determine how teachers and parents perceived the problems and difficulties faced by slow learners and to identify potential solutions to improve their learning. To achieve the objective researchers employed qualitative research design and used a questionnaire to gather information from preschool educators and parents. Findings of the study highlight the importance of characteristics including memory impairment, lack of self-assurance, a lack of social support, and a hesitant disposition in causing learning difficulties. The importance of fostering in children a passion for learning is widely acknowledged by parents. A teacher's ability to provide a learning environment that caters to each student's unique needs and strengths is crucial to the academic success and happiness of slow learners. Unfortunately, there are times when this isn't feasible for a number of reasons. Further support for slow learners is found in individualized lesson plans, extended study periods, learning through projects, and the use of interactive media (such as games), oral instruction, and collaborative projects.</em></p> Sumaira Younis Saman Naeem Dr. Zahid Ali Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 6 2 132 138 10.36902/sjesr-vol6-iss1-2023(132-138)