sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research en-US sjesr 2706-8285 From Conventional to Outstanding Leadership: Exploring Role of CIP Leadership in Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/904 <p><em>One important question in today’s corporate world: Which leadership style is more effective in running a successful enterprise? Previously, the research on the effectivity of transformational and transactional leadership styles was limited due to the mere comparison of one’s effectivity over the other. However, the single leadership approach may not yield more incredible benefits. The present study intends to explore the combination of leadership styles that are more effective in handling ill-defined problems. The study intends to explain the unique combination of future-focused charismatic, past-focused ideological, and present-focused pragmatic leadership in creating a conducive environment for knowledge creation and subsequent employees’ innovative work behavior (IWB). The software developers in IT companies registered under Pakistan Software Export Board make up the study population. The research comprised quantitative data collected from four cities in Pakistan: Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, and Rawalpindi, using a purposive sampling approach. PLS-SEM has been used for the analysis of 362 responses. The results found a positive relationship between charismatic and pragmatic leadership and employee IWB; however, the effect was insignificant for ideological leadership. The study found a positive association between Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic (CIP) leadership and employees’ Knowledge Creation. An indirect relationship was observed for mediation analysis and found significant positive mediation of employees’ knowledge creation between CIP leadership and employees’ IWB. The findings depicted that there is no fit-for-all approach to leadership, and a context-specific CIP leadership approach may serve the best. The IT sector may yield more advantages from the study as the success of the software projects is based on IT professionals’ knowledge and innovative behavior. The present study has novelty as it is the first to explain the role of CIP leadership in employee IWB in the IT industry. Moreover, also novel in explaining the mediation of Knowledge creation between CIP leadership and employees’ IWB.</em></p> Mr. Muhammad Mursaleen Dr. Mahwish Parveen Dr. Asif Shahzad Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 5 4 62 77 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(62-77) Development and Validation of a Psychological Assessment Scale for Adolescents with Leukemia https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/900 <p><em>The study aimed to develop and validate a scale that records biopsychosocial problems in adolescents with leukemia. First, 30 adolescents with leukemia were individually interviewed to produce an item pool of twenty-eight divergent problems.&nbsp; Repeated items were excluded, and the final 25-item list of distinct problems was pilot tested among 25 adolescents with leukemia as a 4-point self-report measure of the Psychological Symptom Scale. A sample of 250 adolescents received the final 25-item list, the Cancer Pain Rating Scale (Ikram &amp; Rafiq, 2021), and a demographic information sheet containing age, stage of leukemia, and history of the pre-and post-chemotherapy sessions were recorded. Further to validate the items Principle Component Analysis was administered through which 19 items with four factors were identified: biological, emotional, social, and psychological. Results revealed high concurrent and internal validity of the measure. The results have been debated regarding the implications of mental health symptoms for adolescent counseling services and suggest further research.</em></p> Sobia Ikram Muhammad Rafiq Rabia Hanif Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 5 4 53 61 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(53-61) Inductive Approach and Grammatical Awareness of Student Teachers https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/896 <p><em>To assess the effectiveness of inductive approach for teaching grammar on grammatical awareness of student teachers was the major objective of the study. The difference between the achievement scores in grammatical awareness test of the student teachers treated with inductive grammar teaching approach and the student teachers in traditional approach group is not significant- was the major hypothesis. The study was quasi experimental in nature. Pre and post tests were conducted by using a self-developed grammar achievement test. Two class sections of BS Education were selected conveniently and randomly labelled as control and experimental group. Inductive approach for teaching grammar was applied in the experimental group whereas control group was dealt with traditional grammar teaching. Results indicated that the student teachers taught through inductive grammar teaching approach performed better in test of grammatical awareness than the student teachers taught through traditional teaching. Difference in man achievement score among high, low and average achievers in the treatment group was not significant in test of grammatical awareness. Similarly, the difference in mean achievement score was also not significant between female and male student teachers in the treatment group.</em></p> Sahibzada Shamim-ur-Rasul Misbah Iqbal Tariq Saleem Ghayyur Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 5 4 47 52 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(47-52) Impact of Affective use of ICT in Teaching Mathematics at Secondary Level https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/903 <p><em>The government of Punjab Pakistan is taking steps to keep up the quality of education particularly at school level. There are three steps in school education in Punjab. First is Primary second is elementary and third is high school education of secondary level education. Initially government has taken steps for provision of information communication technology to its secondary level education. Almost all high schools of the government of Punjab have now been ornamented with IT labs. Most of which have smart board facility and Tabs for transmission of information. The government is working on regular basis on the task to provide numerous schemes of information communication technologies to schools particularly at secondary level. However proper teaching of every subject specially mathematics through information communication technologies is still lacking in the country especially in Punjab. Through this paper we have indicated some aspects through which we are able to decrease rote habits through Information Communication Technology. The IT Labs in the schools of Punjab is not being used by the teachers of the other subjects. So, there is very least use of IT Labs in teaching process of the other subjects in the secondary school. This paper presents the need of using ICT in other subjects especially in mathematics to build up the confidence in the teachers using ICT in teaching of mathematics. Some sort of lacking of time to the teachers in the classroom is also a base of poor teaching. Giving access to IT labs and their use to the non-IT teachers as well can be helpful in achieving the quality education at High school level. The conclusion of this paper drawn from collected data and after statistical analysis of it, suggestions have been indicated to keep up the concept building approach of mathematics students through ICT in Punjab through district Gujranwala.</em></p> Muhammad Amjad Javaid Dr. Muhammad Hameed Nawaz Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 5 4 40 46 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(40-46) Homework as an Assignment: Parents’ Perceptions and Involvement https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/902 <p>This qualitative study explored the parents’ perceptions and involvement in homework for secondary school students. The study also explored parents’ challenges and suggestions in completing homework as an engaging activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 parents selected through a purposive sampling technique.&nbsp; Thematic analysis was used to draw themes and sub-themes from qualitative data. The findings revealed that parents of secondary school students believed that homework is an activity that supports the learning process of their children. They considered homework the responsibility of the school and teachers. The challenges were that homework was an overloaded activity that teachers and schools did not support. These findings led to some important implications for the study. It is important to involve parents in devising homework policies and providing training to support their children in homework completion. The study also suggested developing a nation-wide homework policy that may guide teachers, parents, and students.</p> Samia Anwar Dr. Shaista Irshad Khan Dr. Shawana Fazal Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 5 4 29 39 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(29-39) Effect of Positive and Negative Religious Coping Styles on Perceived Stress of Teachers https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/894 <p><em>The current study primarily aimed at investigating religious coping styles' effect on teachers’ perceived stress. This article also enlightened the difference in scores of male and female educators in the use of positive religious coping styles. Correlational design was employed and data of (N=350) was taken through convenience sampling comprising both males (n=168) and females (n=182) around the Malakand division of Khyber Phuktoonkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Collected data was then analyzed via statistical tools; Linear regression, correlation, and t-test, through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Firstly, Regression analysis revealed that religious coping led to reduced perceived stress in teachers. Pearson correlational analysis showed a positive significant association between negative religious coping and perceived stress among educators while positive religious coping has a negative relationship with perceived stress among them. The comparative analysis demonstrated that female educators scored higher on positive religious coping than male educators. Further data comparison disclosed that males showed higher negative religious coping than females. These findings proved to be helpful for teachers, policymakers, researchers, and mental health professionals better understand and cater to educators’ religious coping styles and initiate a series of multiple workshops and projects focusing on their mental health in the Muslim world.</em></p> Syeda Nafisa Kainat Zia Sidra Gul Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 5 4 20 28 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(20-28) An Exploration into the Students’ Perceptions of Teachers’ Objectivity During Exams Grading: A Case of University of Swat https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/893 <p><em>Examinations are students’ chance for show casing their learning to the examiners and to their teachers for the efforts that were put into their (Teachers) teaching for maximum benefits of the students. However, students, expectations about the gradings are not always fulfilled and students feel that they were either not awarded according to their abilities or they were discriminated against. Reasons of discrimination that students cite and have also been endorsed by different research in different parts of the world include; gender discrimination, discrimination on the basis of students, caste, creed and colour. Some research also links students’ agreeable personality and submissive attitude in presence of the teachers as reasons for favoritism towards some students and discriminating against others beside teachers’ mood swings during students grading, Dee and Gershenson (2017), by Fan et al (2019), Megalokonomou (2021), Terrier (2015) and Bygren (2020). The current research is focused on finding students perceptions about teachers, objectivity and biases students, exams grading through a qualitative case study. Ten (10) participants with equal gender distribution agreed for taking part in the study and for sharing their perceptions about teachers, teachers grading bias or objectivity. This, however, must be noted that the current research study is purely based on only students’ perceptions. Research results show that majority of the participants are of the view that teachers grading has the element of bias on the basis of students’ gender, behaviour, personality and their attachment or friendship with teachers.</em></p> Dr. Farooq Nawaz Khan Dr. Maryum Imad Dr. Sheraz Ali Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 5 4 12 19 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(12-19) Relationship of Effective Teaching and Teachers’ Training about Technology for Primary Students https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/891 <p><em>Significance of innovation plays vital part in all fields of life especially teaching and learning process. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the effect of innovations of technology on the instructors' presentation at primary level. To address the mentioned objective it was focused to see that there is no strong contrast in the effect of mechanical technology training on the educator' performance. Quantitatively by utilizing five point likert scale instrument data was collected from 401 instructors instructing to primary students. The gathered information was analysed by utilizing SPSS programming. Inferential measurements were utilized and found a strong relationship of technological training and effective teaching learning process. The teachers trained through technological innovation performed better than other teachers. On the foundations of facts it was suggested that there ought to be boost of technology in instructional courses for quality schooling.</em></p> Samra Mehmood Dr. Shafqat Ali Dr. Tariq Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 5 4 5 11 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(5-11) Job Satisfaction among University Faculty in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/886 <p><em>The current study intends to examine the job satisfaction among the government universities’ faculty in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two stage cluster random sampling is used to identify teachers for taking information. Five clusters (universities) are selected in the first stage. Then, education departments within universities are considered as clusters in the second stage of sampling. A structure questionnaire is distributed among them. The data analysed by SPSS version 19. Analysing the job satisfaction level, we find 48% of faculty members highly satisfied.&nbsp; Moreover, 33% faculty members are moderate satisfied, 13% are low satisfied, 4% are un-satisfied, and 2% are highly un-satisfied. The job satisfaction level is also investigated for each university individually, and for different ages of faculty. To identify the significant factor affecting the job satisfaction level of the university’s faculty the ordinal logistic regression model is used. The model shows that salary, workload, and facilities are significantly affecting the job satisfaction of the faculty.&nbsp; Considering the results of the study, it is recommended that salary of the faculty member should be high, workload should be decreases, and required facilities should be provided.</em></p> Dr. Zahid Khan Najeebul Haq Arshad Ali Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 5 4 1 4 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss4-2022(1-4) Teachers’ Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Online Teaching: A Qualitative Study https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/859 <p><em>This study aims to find out how online teaching is improved through critical reflection. The current study is a qualitative study using a hermeneutic phenomenology research design. Using semi-structured interviews, the researcher accessed the participants’ world of the lived experience and their interpretations of these experiences. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 10 research participants from different schools in Lahore. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data. The data analysis revealed a gap in the practical implementation of critical reflection among teachers to improve their teaching. Few teachers used critical reflection to identify the deficits and strengths of their teaching to enhance online pedagogy. It has been concluded that teachers need to be fully aware of its usefulness. The study suggests that critical reflection should be added to teacher training programs and made mandatory for all teachers. </em></p> Maham Jamil Yaar Muhammad Dr. Nasrin Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-10-14 2022-10-14 5 4 78 89 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(78-89) Pragmatic Approach: A Study of Politeness Strategies in Pakistani Morning Shows https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/860 <p><em>The purpose of this study was to explore the use of different politeness strategies in Pakistani Morning shows and to find out the highly frequently used politeness strategies. It further explored the factors affecting the use of different politeness strategies. The data was collected from two Pakistani morning shows “The Morning Show” </em>and <em>“Ek Nayee Subah with Farah”. Brown and Levinson’s (1987) politeness strategies were explored in the utterances of speakers. The frequency of using these strategies was counted and the factors influencing the speakers to choose these strategies were analysed. The findings revealed that the hosts and guests employed all of the fifteen sub-strategies of positive politeness frequently to maintain close relationship. However, the hosts, as the higher level power participants, also apply bald-on strategy to be authoritative with their assistants and the audience. Negative politeness and its ten sub-strategies were less frequently used by the speakers. Different power ranks also affected the choice of politeness strategies because participants having high power used bald-on record strategy but same power ranks showed the application of negative and positive politeness.</em></p> Farzana Khan Maryam Aadil Aurangzaib Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 5 4 9 21 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(9-21) Semantic Significance of Indexicals in Syntax: A Comparative Study of English and Urdu Deixes https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/861 <p><em>The aim of this paper was to find out the relationship between semantics and syntax through pragmatic analysis of indexicals used by Ex-Prime Minister Imran Khan in two of his purposively selected speeches; one in Urdu delivered on 23<sup>rd</sup> December, 2020 on the passing out ceremony of police officers and the other in English delivered on 27<sup>th</sup> September, 2019 in UNGA. The English speech has been analyzed using antconc software while the analysis of Urdu speech has been done manually. A quantitative analysis of the five kinds of deixes in both the speeches strengthened the research results of &nbsp;Samosir and Zainuddin (2013) by providing the proof of the fact that person deixis is the most dominant category of English deixes (45.5%) while spatial is the least dominant (5.1%). The analysis of Urdu speech revealed a similar pattern as the person deixis (51.9%) is the most frequent, spatial being the least (3.9%).&nbsp; The presence of all five kinds of deixes with a similar pattern of relative frequencies in both the languages have provided a useful data for the purpose of Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999) to find out parallel structures in the grammar of six languages out of which two have been analyzed in this paper.</em></p> Afsheen Hassan Namra Ashraf Dr. Husnat Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 1 8 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(1-8) An Investigation into Spatial Ability in Geometry among Secondary School Students https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/869 <p><em>Spatial ability is reflected to be one of the major abilities that appear especially essential in learning and doing mathematics. The present study is aimed at observing the spatial ability in geometry among secondary school students and teachers teaching mathematics. Objective of the study was to compare the spatial ability of the students of urban and rural secondary schools. To achieve the above objective, following null hypothesis was tested; there is no significant difference between urban and rural secondary schools’ students on spatial abilities. A total of 400 students studying in 9<sup>th</sup> class from sixteen schools were randomly selected as the sample of the study. The study was conducted with the help of an empirical research design. Different Spatial Ability Tests were developed to measure spatial ability. For the purpose of data collection, observation sheets and test items were developed to investigate the performance of the students. Different statistical techniques like Mean, Standard Deviation, and t-test were applied to analyze the collected data. The study is equally significant for all secondary school students as well as for researchers and curriculum developers. Major conclusions of the study were; urban private secondary school students performed better than the others (government urban, government rural and private rural). Main recommendation was; curriculum was relevant hence it was retained.</em></p> Noor Muhammad Dr. Sajid Rehman Dr. Muhammad Naeemullah Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 22 28 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(22-28) Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory: Translation and Validation in Pakistani Students https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/863 <p><em>In the present study, the neuroticism extroversion openness personality inventory (IPIP NEO-PI) short form (Goldberg, 1992) was adapted and translated for the evaluation of personality dynamics of Madrassah students in Pakistan. Through factor analysis and back-translation technique, the IPIP-NEO personality inventory was validated and translated into Urdu. Further, on the sample of bilingual adolescents’ linguistic equivalence of the scale was also determined. Madrassah students with the age ranging from 16 to 28 years (N = 350; M<sub>age</sub> = 12.98 years), with 175 males (M<sub>age</sub> = 12.98 years) and 175 females (M<sub>age</sub> = 12.97 years) evaluated themselves on the Urdu NEO personality inventory. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. To confirm the authors’ model and findings of previous research, one, two, three, four, and five-factor models were analysed. In addition, the gender and education system of the participants were also investigated with their IPIP-NEO personality inventory scores. The IPIP-NEO personality inventory scores exhibited significant differences for these variables. It was revealed that males and females belonging to different education systems scored differently on IPIP-NEO sub-scales. The reported alpha coefficients for the Urdu IPIP-NEO personality inventory subscales ranging from .79 to .93. Exploratory Factor analysis generated a five-factor solution for the Urdu IPIP-NEO personality inventory.</em></p> Dr. Shagufta Perveen Zainab Noor Sidra Tul Muntaha Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 29 36 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(29-36) Academic Environment and Students’ Learning: Causal Perspective of Secondary School Level in Dera Ghazi Khan https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/878 <p><em>The study aims to find out students’ perception about various aspects of academic environment at school and to depict the impact of academic environment on students’ learning. This study also discovers whether these two variables exist at the same standard in public and private sectors or there is any variation in availability or relation? The study employed descriptive survey method. The population of the study was the secondary class students of all Public and Private Secondary Schools in Dera Ghazi Khan district. Two stage random technique was adopted to determine the sample size. At first stage 10 public sector and 10 private secondary school from Dera Ghazi Khan with equal ratio of male and female schools. At the second stage 25 students from each school were randomly selected. Total sample size for the study was consisted on 500 secondary school students. The researchers used the questionnaire and an achievement test in English as data collection instruments. The collected data was analysed by calculated mean score and Standard Deviation. t-test and co relational tests were applied to find out the relation between academic environment at school and students’ learning. The study concluded that there was a positive co-relation between academic environment and students’ learning. The study also recommended that secondary school management should focus in ensuring positive academic environment at school to enhance students’ learning output and overall growth and development.</em></p> Dr. Ijaz Hussain Irum Iqbal Sofia Khakwani Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 37 49 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(37-49) A Study of Relationship between Autists’ Conversational Abilities and GARS-3 Ratings https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/866 <p><em>Autism is one of those very complex prevailing neurodevelopmental disorders which are very difficult to diagnose. Since the discovery of this disorder, researchers, working in the field of Autism, have been proposing different methodologies to diagnose Autism. These proposals have been coming from the multiple fields. The present study is an attempt to see how insights from the field of conversation analysis can help find a simpler and better method of diagnosing autism. The study contends that Autists’’ ability to construct conversational loops reciprocates to their ratings on the GARS-3 Scale. Firstly, Conversations between eight autistic children and their speech therapists are recorded, transcribed and analyzed by following norms of conversation analysis. Then these results are compared with participants’ ratings on GARS-3 scale. Findings of the study validate researcher’s claim that there do exist a lucid link between conversational abilities of the autists and their scores on the GARS-3 Scale. Through these findings the researcher proposes conversation analysis as a methodology for diagnosing autism.</em></p> Javeria Waleed Irfan Abbas Samra Akram Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 50 56 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(50-56) Impact of Computer-Aided Educational Applications on Communication and Learning Abilities of the Autists https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/867 <p><em>Computer-aided instructions have significant potential in increasing the educational experiences and facilitating the development of children with special needs (autistic children). Early intervention for autistic children helps their learning, language, and communication skills.</em> <em>&nbsp;This study aimed to explore the perceptions of parents of autists and speech therapists regarding the use of computer-aided educational applications to improve the communication and learning of Autistic Students. A critical paradigm was used for this study, under this paradigm, mixed methods research was used. Under mixed methods research, an explanatory sequential design was used. All the parents of autists and speech therapists of Lahore were considered the population for this study. A purposive sampling technique was used to determine the desired sample size from the population. Seventy-three parents of autists and twenty-eight speech therapists participated in the study. For the quantitative phase, the purposive sampling technique was used. For the qualitative phase, only those parents of autists using mobile/computer applications for student communication and language development were selected. Four instruments were used in this study. The reliability for the parents of autists’ questionnaire was α=.77 and for the speech therapists' questionnaire was α=.96. Data was analyzed using SPSS. It is concluded that parents of autists and speech therapists have average to high perceptions (based on their means) regarding the usage of educational applications.&nbsp; However, positive perceptions were shared by the speech therapists and parents of autists about the educational applications using these applications for specific purposes. It is also noted that an individualized set of activities are essential for autistic children.</em></p> Uzma Naeem Irfan Abbas Iqra Majeed Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 57 67 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(57-67) Becoming an Effective Classroom Manager: Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions of their Classroom Management Education and Self-Efficacy Beliefs https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/849 <p><em>It is very important that preservice teachers are provided an effective classroom management education so that they can develop the knowledge, attitude, and practices expected from an effective classroom manager. This study explores the preservice teachers’ perceptions of their classroom management education. This is a qualitative study using a hermeneutic phenomenology research design. Eleven participants from a private university were interviewed using a semi-structured interview tool. The findings suggest that preservice teachers are provided with multiple skills, from emotional support to moral reinforcement and diversity management, so that they can become skillful classroom managers. The significance of preservice teachers, their training, and different aspects of how a classroom should be, have been discussed in the research. Overall, it’s qualitative research, and it elaborates on preservice teachers’ perceptions of multiple domains of classroom management education in an education department.</em></p> Sharooj Binate Zahid Yaar Muhammad Yasira Waqar Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 68 77 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(68-77) Palestinian Woman’s Identity Shift from Implicit-Being to Explicit-Becoming: A Review of Susan Abulhawa’s Against the Loveless World https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/857 <p><em>Susan Abulhawa takes the concept of Palestinian Woman’s Identity Shift on account of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and experiences of homelessness. Her novel, Against the Loveless World, has been selected for this study. The present study on account of being qualitative in nature has been thematically analyzed in the light of Stuart Hall theory of representation (1997). In the light of analyzed data, we find that Palestinians are transported from their ancestral lands to refugee camps without crossing international borders. Characters of the novel Against the Loveless World demonstrate how difficult it is to tackle all these issues and build a Palestinian identity while living in exile. Palestinians' exile boosted their sense of national identity by developing strong bonds among refugees and strong anti-Israeli sentiment. The protagonist fought for love and belonging in a world that wanted to give her nothing. Nahr’s life unfolds in unexpected directions like imperialism, invasion, occupation, and colonialism; racism, sexism, psychological diseases, and class are the context of her life. On the brink of poverty and shouldering the responsibility to keep her family afloat, Nahr struggled for everything she could do to ensure her survival. She suffers much. She survives. Nahr is willing to face dangers, and she proves the gritty realness of women’s trek toward feminist defiance and individual dignity. Nahr is determined to find love in a loveless world, a ray of hope for others. This is a woman's journey from Being nothing to becoming something, being a victim and traumatized character to becoming powerful and determined to survive and constructing an individual identity in a loveless world. It vindicates the significant process of identity shift taking place in Palestinian fiction.</em></p> Khadija Bibi Abdul Rashid Unaiza Khudai Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 90 98 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(90-98) Study on the Challenges faced by Women Working Educational Managers https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/868 <p><em>The education sector in Pakistan is facing various challenges, one of which is the under-representation of women in positions of educational management. Underrepresentation of women in positions of educational leadership has been all around as perceived in the writing of the United States and Europe (Lopez, 2008) just as in Asian settings (Shamsodin, Saeed &amp; Shahla, 2012). This socio</em>-cultural<em>cation level. Further settings his study also explored the internal and external barriers faced by women within their cultures and environments. The objectives of the study were to: examine the role of gender in shaping female perception for pursuing educational management position, explore the nature of household responsibilities being performed by women working in educational management, identify the influence of work environment on the performance of female managers, inspect the influence of socioeconomic background and socio cultural beliefs to women pursuing educational management related posts. This study utilized a mixed method approach. All the females on managerial position in Islamabad (International Islamic University Islamabad) and Rawalpindi (Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi) was identified as population /sample size and universal sampling technique was used. In this study, the researcher administered self-developed questionnaire and semi structured interview guide for collecting data from the participants. Researcher personally visited all the selected universities for data collection. Frequency and percentages was used to analyse the data collected from the questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. It is concluded that need-based regular training program for improvement of women leadership.</em></p> Naila Irum Misbah Shafait Abbasi Humaira Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 99 107 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(99-107) Secondary School Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and Use of ICT in Classroom https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/883 <p><em>Current study intended to identify teachers’ level of knowledge and ICT use into pedagogy at secondary level. It was a mixed method study. Quantitative data were collected from 100 teachers of secondary schools Rawalpindi. Descriptive statistics was applied and results were found out through percentage, mean, frequency and standard deviation. Interviews were also conducted with the secondary school teachers. Quantitative data revealed that teachers use only those ICT tools in which they have adequate level of knowledge. Qualitative data also backed these results and highlighted that teachers’ lack knowledge in ICT tools therefore they don't utilize them. They demand administrative support and need-based training in the development of ICT skills and knowledge. It is recommended that ICT integration in the field of education needs greater consideration than it is receiving. Teachers’ fewer knowledge in area of ICT depicted the need of enhancing their level of knowledge regarding advanced ICT tools.</em></p> Tanzela Alam Dr. Farhana Khurshid Dr. Umer Farooq Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 108 115 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(108-115) Nurturing Students’ Academic Research writing through Experiential Learning: Work-based Teaching for Research Skill Development https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/884 <p><em>Experiential or work-based learning is deemed essential for the completion of formal higher education qualifications, in particular postgraduate degrees. The aim of these research degrees is to develop the intellectual capacity of individuals to become independent researchers. This target is achieved by teaching courses on research methods. The current study is exploratory in nature that aims to explore change in the knowledge and skills of students through the experiential instruction method. Thirty students from a doctoral program were included as a sample of the study. Continuous feedback was taken from students through social media tools. The focus of feedback was targeting the dimensions of engagement of students in the research course. The discourse analysis of WhatsApp chat was used to analyze the data. In addition to this, further interviews were carried out to understand the progression and improvement in research skills.</em></p> Dr. Amna Yousaf Dr. Fariha Gul Dr. Sajid Masood Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 116 122 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(116-122) Does Gender Difference Exist on the Teaching Creativity Level of Male and Female Secondary School English Teachers in District Bannu? https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/881 <p><em>The main focus of the current study was to investigate the creativity level, teaching effectiveness level and gender difference in creativity level of secondary school teachers in district Bannu. The researcher used two instruments i.e. English Language Teachers’ Creativity Scale (ELT-CS) and Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaires. Random sampling followed by proportion allocation was used to collect the data. Since the data regarding teachers’ creativity and teaching effectiveness was collected from their students, so 363 students were randomly selected from 23 female and 40 male secondary schools. Mean, Standard Deviation and Independent Sample t-test were used analyzing the data. The results of the study concluded that female secondary school teachers were more creative than male secondary school teachers. Those teachers, whose creativity level was high, were more creative than those whose creativity level was low. It was suggested that teachers should be motivated to improve their creativity level in all aspects so that their teaching and their students learning could improve and educational objective could be met. For the first time, the researcher attempted to determine the level of creativity among secondary school teachers in district Bannu, and got empirical data to prove the importance of creativity for teaching effectiveness.</em></p> Rahat Jehan Dr. Gulap Shahzada Dr. Javed Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 123 136 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(123-136) Assessment of English Language Proficiency in Grade 7 Pakistan https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/885 <p><em>Standardized tests help learners fulfil their natural desire to learn English and achieve self-actualization needs. The standardized Grade 7 test measured single subject maximum performance on lexical, vocabulary, reading, and writing items. Public schools of Pakistan were the population. Test takers included in this research (n=1500, boys =733, girls =770) were randomly sampled from 56 public schools across Pakistan. However, the pilot study sample was from Lahore district. The percentage of urban schools was 55%, while the rural school percentage was 45%. The percentage of test takers from Punjab was 42.2%, the Northern Areas 24.2%, Sindh 19.1%, and Baluchistan 10.8%. The percentage of female Grade 7 learners was 50.9%, and male learners 49.1%. The sample size for males and females was achieved at 95 % confidence level, margin of error ±5%, population proportion 70%. The objectives achieved during this research were development of a reliable standardized English test (Cronbach alpha 0.888). The findings indicated urban schools had higher scores on learners’ objective items compared to rural schools while the writing tasks indicated no sig. difference in the performance of urban and rural schools suggesting memorization of English essays. This research recommends standardized testing since objective items activate schema retrieval practices.</em></p> Baligua Unis Dr. Ghazala Noureen Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 137 144 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(137-144) Malakand Nizam-I-Adal Regulation 2009 https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/882 <p><em>The administration of Pakistan isn’t directly by Central Government, so that fail in administrative capacity. Malakand Division consists of Swat, Chitral, Dir, Malakand Agency. Before 1969 each states have had their own rule and regulations. After implementation of the PATA Regulation (Provincially Administrative Tribal Area) 1975, legal cases were decided by Tehsildar. Under PATA Regulation any person was arrested without any reason. So this Regulation was deteriorated Malakand situation. In 1994 imposition of Tehreek-i-Nifaz-i-Shariat-i-Muhammadi (TNSM), so it was called enforcement of Islamic law in Malakand Division<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"><strong>[1]</strong></a>. This Regulation was later on repeal in 1999. The emergence of Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) 2007 and was swallow up whole of FATA. The TTP has adopted modern techniques to subdue terrorism. Bomb blast and suicide attacks killed thousand of people in whole country. TTP attacked inside in Pakistan was revenge of US involvement in Afghanistan.&nbsp; So in this violence and conflict situation another Regulation was enforced in Malakand Nizam-e-Adal Regulation 2009. In this regulation disputes are settle by informal institutions. It is ensuring of natural justice system, equality, peace and protection.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Sultan-i-Rome, Swat State, p. 308.</p> Naila Rafique Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 5 4 145 149 10.36902/sjesr-vol5-iss3-2022(145-149)