sjesr <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> en-US (Muhammad Idrees) (Web Admin) Mon, 06 Feb 2023 05:26:22 +0000 OJS 60 The Influence of Vocabulary Instructions to the Development of grade 9 ESL Learners' English Vocabulary Acquisition: A Phenomenological Study <p><em>The goal of this study was to investigate methods for teaching English vocabulary to ninth-grade students in private schools in order to identify learning obstacles in the acquisition of vocabulary instruction and to propose suitable solutions. Hence, a phenomenological qualitative research approach was used to accomplish the goals of the study. This phenomenological analysis of classroom instruction provides important insights into the design of vocabulary-building exercises for English as a Second Language (ESL) learners and discusses several important considerations that must be taken into account. Children learning English as a second language who have a slower than average rate of vocabulary acquisition also have a more difficult time comprehending literature written at the ninth grade level. In-depth interviews with four ESL educators were recorded, transcribed, and evaluated thematically. The findings suggest that ESL educators are employing a wide range of methods to boost students' vocabulary in their lessons, but more research into the effectiveness of these methods is needed. This study confirmed the need of providing ongoing assistance to ESL learners as they work to increase their vocabulary. More research in these areas is needed to improve ELTs' vocabulary instruction, ESLs' vocabulary acquisition and understanding, as this study found that vocabulary training and other linguistically based interventions improved reading and education results for ESL students. Teachers also need to be familiar with and equipped to use contemporary methods of vocabulary instruction that take into account their students' abilities and background knowledge.</em></p> Dr. Zahid Ali, Ishtiaq Ahmed Kolachi, Rizwan Azam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 14 Mar 2023 16:37:51 +0000 Effect of Corrective Feedback on the Development of Vocabulary in the Acquisition of Second Language at Secondary Level <p><em>Effect of corrective feedback on the development of vocabulary in the acquisition of second language at secondary level was the main purpose of this study. The study utilized an experimental design, specifically a (pre-test post-test equivalent group design). Sample consisted of 30 students in each group, selected on their pre-test scores. Experimental group received corrective feedback during an eight-week period, while the control group followed the same lessons but with the conventional teaching. Results also indicated that application of corrective feedback strategy was beneficial for the vocabulary development of experimental group contrarily to control group. These findings implied that integrating ‘‘corrective feedback’’ a type of feedback in language teaching practices can effectively enhance students' language proficiency in public sector schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Therefore, the study recommends that language teachers in public sector schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa should adopt corrective feedback strategies into their teaching practices to improve their students' overall language proficiency, including vocabulary development.</em></p> Sardar Muhammad, Zahoor-ul-Haq, Sanam Alam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 14 Mar 2023 16:25:36 +0000 Fayol’s Purpose Principles of Management: An Analysis of Practices of Heads at Secondary Level in District Poonch Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan <p><em>The study aimed to examine the managerial practices of school principals in district Poonch Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir's private secondary schools, using Henri Fayol's management theory's purpose principles as a framework. The primary goals of the study were to assess how the heads' experience impacted their adherence to Fayol's purpose principles and to compare the implementation of these principles based on gender. The research was founded on Henri Fayol's administrative theory. All the private schools were population of the study which was 94 during the academic year 2012-17. Systematic sampling technique adopted to select the sample. There 76 private schools selected as sample of the study. The data collected through questionnaires. This Instrument had been validated from the experts. Collected data had been entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This software supported the scholar for the generation of reports. For data analysis mean, ANNOVA and t-test used to find the relevant results of objectives. Results reported and derived on the basis of data analysis. Some key findings were that principles of Fayol management theory are practiced by heads. However some parts of this theory are being neglected. The implementation of these principles varies based on the previous experience of the team leads. In certain cases, highly experienced individuals may overlook principles that are crucial for those with less experience. The implementation of management principles also varies among leaders based on gender. Based on these variations in results, it is recommended that different performance reviews be provided to the school heads to assess their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, school heads may benefit from proper training sessions and mentoring. It is also suggested that workshops be conducted to raise awareness about management theories</em></p> Anum Hayat, Dr. Saira Nudrut, Syed Jawad Zareen Shah Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 11 Mar 2023 07:36:14 +0000 Collaboration as 21st Century Learning Skill at Undergraduate Level <p><em>This research work is about collaboration as an important learning skill of the 21<sup>st</sup> century skill set. Collaboration means to work to gather or to work as team to attain some certain common objectives. This research study highlights different advantages to work as a collaborative team. It covers both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the topic. Detailed interviews are conducted from students and as well a survey was also conducted to check to what extent students are using this skill of collaboration in their learning process. Six students from BS English and BS Education were selected for interview section and 200 students from BS English and BS Education were surveyed in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative results are analysed and conclusion is drawn on the basis of results. Convergent parallel mix method design is used to analyse the data. Data analysed with simple descriptive statics and thematic analysis of the conducted interviews. The results of this study shows that collaborative tasks are used among students in their process of learning but not at a larger scale. Group work and combine projects and assignments are included but just for once or twice in a semester.</em></p> Musarrat Riaz, Dr. Marium Din Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 11 Mar 2023 07:21:56 +0000 Effect of bullying behaviour on Pakistani Adolescents: Roll of self-esteem and Academic Achievements in gender Perspectives <p><em>Existing study objectives was to investigating the impact of bullying behaviour on adolescent’s self-esteem and academic achievements in gender perspectives. The population of existing research was all young people of Punjab Pakistan. The sample contained of 3200 students aged between 13 to 19 who were enrolled public schools in Punjab province, stratified sampling procedure was used. For the present research cross-sectional research and quantitative research technique was designed. To assess the face to face bullying<a name="_Toc78205019"></a><a name="_Toc52297656"></a> Problem Behaviour Frequency Scale was adapted. For assessing self-esteem of adolescents Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale adopted and accessing academic achievements grades were included. The findings were analysed after data cleaning, used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. Regression analysis was carried out to see the sights of impact of bullying behaviour. T-Test was used to measure differences of gender differences. Pearson Moment Co relational Analysis was used to measure the effect of bullying behaviour on self-esteem and educational achievement of adolescents. The results demonstrated that majority of the respondents agreed upon that there is an impact of traditional bullying on adolescents. The results exhibited that traditiona1 bullying had a moderate corre1ation with academic achievement and self-esteem. Findings revealed that a significant difference between female and male and adolescents with regard to traditiona1 bullying. Female students indicate that their opinion is stronger with traditiona1 bullying as compared to male students. Programs for bullies must be put in place by teachers and administration in order to decrease bullying behaviour at institutions.</em></p> Dr. Fouzia Parveen, Hina Tehreem, Qurat-ul-Ain Shams Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 04 Mar 2023 07:55:21 +0000 How Teachers Develop Professionally: Effectiveness of Trainings Programs on Teaching Attitude and Performance of Science Teachers <p><em>Teachers training found to be very effective in the teaching profession and proves useful to bringing changes in the major aspects of teaching like attitude and performance regarding their professional development. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the perception regarding teaching attitude and performance of trained and untrained science teachers. The study aim to explore the teaching attitude regarding effectiveness of training and their professional development. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 15 trained and 15 untrained teachers those joined lately. The study found that the trained teachers show positive attitude because of their training, building up expertise in the field. Though, the untrained teachers like teaching because they viewed it respectable profession but need to improve further. Also it was found that training makes teachers performance better than the untrained teachers cannot perform well initially. Moreover, male and female teachers have different attitude towards teaching profession. Also the private teachers perform well in different aspects then public school teachers. Overall the study concludes that both trained and untrained teachers have positive attitude towards teaching with a difference in performance. There is a difference between trained and untrained teachers on their classroom management and pedagogical approach. This study suggests that there should be opportunity of continuous professional development provided to the new teachers as well as senior teachers.</em></p> Dr. Nasrin Akhter Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Wed, 15 Feb 2023 05:09:35 +0000 A Qualitative Inquiry into the Role and Issues of Physical Education in Primary Schools: Perspectives of Primary School Teachers <p><a name="_Toc85130486"></a><em>The study explored the role and issues of physical education (PE) in primary schools.</em><em> A qualitative research design was used to investigate the issues. The participants of the study were purposively selected from primary schools teachers (PSTs) in lower Dir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for collecting data. In this regard, four questions were developed after studying the literature and discussing the issue with the stakeholders. The data collected were analysed through the thematic analysis technique. Analysis of the data shows that physical education is essential for the mental, physical, and social growth of children. Moreover, it keeps students active and they feel happy in school. And physical activities can make students good citizens and useful human beings in the future. However, the study finds that physical education is not taken seriously in primary schools. There are not any dedicated teachers, a proper curriculum is missing and most of the schools lack proper grounds and indoor facilities where the students may exploit their potential.</em></p> Nazia Saeed, Dr. Rahmat Shah, Dr. Itbar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Mon, 13 Feb 2023 05:50:30 +0000 Input Resources and Academic Achievements of the Students <p><em>The study was primarily intended to examine the association of input resources and academic achievements of the students in public and private sector colleges. Input resources were measured in terms of physical, financial, human, and information resources. The academic achievements of the students were measured through results of respective colleges in annual BISE examinations and treated as output of the colleges. For sampling, the colleges of district Kotli AJ&amp;K were selected. The study employed primary data, collected through mailed questionnaire, to determine the level of input resources in respective colleges. In the meantime, secondary data regarding academic achievements of the students were extracted from annual board gazettes. The collected responses were analysed by using correlation and regression analysis. The study found difference between input resources and academic achievements of the students in public and private colleges. Positive and significant correlation between input resources and academic achievements of the students was also observed. Separate regression analysis for public and private sector colleges exposed that the effect of input resources on academic achievements of the students remained pronounced in private as compared to public colleges. Based on results, the study suggested the effective deployment and sharing of available resources to and from each category for mutual gain and better educational outcomes.</em></p> Dr. Khatiba Akhter, Dr. Ghulam Mujtaba Chaudhary, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Mon, 13 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Interpretive Structural Modelling of Causes of Employee Turnover in Microfinance Industry <p><em>Microfinance is considered to be one of the best tools to deliver the financial services to the poor people in Pakistan to eradicate the poverty from the roots. This research is aimed to explore the factors that impact causes of employee turnover in microfinance industry in developing countries like Pakistan. Discourse of literature coupled with experts opinion is used for identification of factors. Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) is used of structural mapping of factors interconnections. Cross impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC analysis) is used for classifying the factors on the basis of driving-dependence power. ISM and MICMAC methodologies are used in order to simplify the complex and conundrum phenomena by representing it into graphical form. These are qualitative methodologies of modelling and analysis for which primary data is collected through matrix type instrument of measurement coupled with semi-structured interview. Results of review of literature show that there are 18 factors causing employees turnover in microfinance industry. ISM results reveal that job insecurity, absence of complementary financial and non-financial services, unrealistic recovery targets and temptation for money laundering are the most critical factors. MICMAC shows that there is no autonomous factor, 4 are in independent, 4 are in dependent and remaining 10 are in linking. This is a valuable study having implications for microfinance investors to use their existing resources, policy makers to design their policies according to the designed framework to gain advantage and decision makers to use their existing resources &amp; means to manage these factors optimistically. The current study was conducted in a developed country such as Pakistan, but it can be effectively extended to neighbouring developing countries with minor changes to the hierarchy structural model.</em></p> Dr. Tehmina Fiaz Qazi, Abdul Basit, Saira Shaukat Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 10 Feb 2023 07:11:01 +0000 Analyzing the Critical Success Factors of Contactless Businesses: A Post COVID-19 Panorama in Pakistan <p><em>There has been a drastic change in the ways of doing business after COVID-19. Business world has been shifted from traditional to contactless ways and digitalization has been increased during and after COVID-19 all over the world including Pakistan. So, there has been a need to study the factors that affect the success of contactless businesses, specifically in the context of Pakistan. The aim of the study is to generate the comprehensive list of critical success factors of contactless businesses in Pakistan and to analyze their interpersonal relationships and to classify them. This study is exploratory by its nature and the methodology used for this study is Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) along with Multiple Cross Impact Matrix (MICMAC) analysis that corroborate the results of ISM. Data has been collected primarily from the panel of experts on the topic. Results of the study show that the most important factor that contributes towards the success of contactless businesses in Pakistan is creativity and innovation which lies at the bottom of the model. This research is useful for all the stakeholders of contactless businesses since it contributes generates the list of critical factors, their hierarchical model, their classification model and lot of new information on interaction of these critical success factors.</em></p> Ifra Aziz Khan Niazi, Dr. Muhammad Zeeshan Shaukat, Dr. Tehmina Fiaz Qazi Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 09 Feb 2023 16:32:21 +0000 Investigating Distributed Leadership Practices in Pakistani Universities <p><em>The research study aimed to probe distributed leadership practices, the most and the least prevailed practices in public universities of Lahore. The study also aimed to find gender-based differences in prevalence of distributed. The study was conducted in a quantitative paradigm and a survey technique was used to collect data. The population was consisted of all general public universities located in Lahore (6). Three universities were selected through random strata sampling. Among them one was women and two were mixed general universities. Randomly 300 faculty members were selected to get the questionnaire filled. Distributed leadership questionnaire (Özkan and Çakır,2017) was adopted. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data through descriptive and Inferential statistics. It was found that distributed leadership was prevailed in public universities. In women university it was more prevailed than mixed universities. Further there was difference in prevalence of different dimensions of distributed leadership. In women university, practices related to sharing responsibilities and unity of purpose were comparatively more prevailed as compared to mixed universities where rest of three dimensions of distributed leadership were more prevailed. It was suggested that factors behind these differences should be explored through conducting researches in broader context including private sector universities also.</em></p> Syeda Rabia Mushtaq, Dr. Fakhra Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 04 Feb 2023 16:47:12 +0000 Analyzing the Managerial Skills of Heads of Teaching Departments at Public Sector Universities of Malakand Division <p><em>The knowledge, competencies and managerial skills of manager plays important role in the success of an organization. The purpose of this study was to analyse the managerial skills of heads of teaching departments at public sector universities of Malakand division. The population of the study consisted of 69 heads and 484 faculty members in three public sector universities of Malakand division. Through stratified random sampling 45 heads and 210 faculty members were selected as sample of the study. A self-constructed questionnaire consisted of 21 Likert type items were used to collect the data from the respondents. The responses of the heads of departments were crossed checked trough faculty members responses. The reliability of the questionnaire was established through Cronbach’s alpha and found 0.83. Data were analysed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that heads of teaching departments’ managerial skills were ranging from average to high level. A significant differences were found between the perceptions of heads of teaching departments and faculty members regarding interpersonal, informational and decisional skills. Gender, age, academic qualification and administrative experience have no significant effect on managerial skills of heads of teaching departments. The study recommended that Higher Education Commission and university management must arrange capacity building programmes for heads of teaching departments to enhance their interpersonal, informational and decisional skills before appointing them as head of teaching department. Seminars, workshops and refresher courses may be worthwhile strategies to increase the managerial skills of heads of teaching departments.</em></p> Dr. Iqbal Amin Khan, Ms. Hafsa Shayan, Mr. Aurang Zeb Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:32:25 +0000 Effects of Skill Development Training on Mental Health and Well-Being among Women Residing in Kalohi, Tharparkar <p><em>The current research aimed to find out the effects of skill development training on mental well-being and mental health among women of Kalohi, Tharparkar.</em> <em>This particular area was selected because the people were deprived of basic necessities of their lives such as employment and shelter. 120 females belonging to the age range 14 to 25 years were recruited for the purpose of data collection through purposive sampling. The study was quantitative in nature. The participants were assessed through objective tests for mental health and well-being along with a qualitative interview for skill training assessment. Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (Tennant et al., 2007) and Mental Health Screening Form-III (Carroll &amp; McGinley, 2001) were used to assess well-being and mental health respectively. The Sindhi version of the scales was used for the convenience of the participants. Participants were divided into control (non-targeted) and experimental (targeted) groups through fishbowl technique. Pre-testing and post-testing on both groups were conducted to check the authenticity and effectiveness of the training. The results revealed that skill development training proved to be effective as mental health and well-being were significantly increased in the targeted group as shown in the post-testing.</em> <em>This study pointed out the necessity of self-helping tactics which aid individuals to fulfil their daily requirements and earn a livelihood.</em></p> Misbah Rehman, Maria Ashraf, Inshrah Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:21:23 +0000 Effect of Collaborative Learning on the Academic Achievements of Post-Graduate Students at University of Agriculture Faisalabad <p><em>Higher education plays an important role in human life by creating new information, transferring it to students and bringing up revolution. Standards of teaching are very important for academic achievements of students in higher education. Bringing up the standard of teaching requires advanced learning organizations to ensure that the education they offer meets to the students’ desires both today and for the next. Collaborative learning is an instructional way of learning and teaching in which a group of students cooperate to tackle an issue, accomplish a piece of work, and generate new thoughts. In the condition of collaborative learning, socially and spiritually characteristics are tested as they hear alternative points of view, and are required to verbalize and protect their thoughts. In this manner, students start to generate their own theoretical ideas and do not depend on specialists and books structure. Despite of the effectiveness of collaborative learning in teaching leaning process a very limited research work is organized to highlight the obstacles that effect collaborative learning manipulation for projection of related to its for reaching influences of the collaborative learning. In collaborative learning, the students have an opportunity to speak with companions, generate their own thoughts, share believes and other structure. The study entitled “Effect of collaborative learning on the academic achievements of post-graduate students” was conducted at University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The post graduate students of faculty of education were the target population of this study. The total students of M.Sc. education (2<sup>nd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup>) semesters were 160. The sample size of 113 students was selected by using online software </em><a href=""><em></em></a><em> with confidence interval five percent and confidence level ninety-five percent. Simple random sampling technique was used for sample selection. For data collection, a well-developed questionnaire was used for this study. For analyzing the data collection, SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used. The result indicated major facilitating factors and inhabiting factors . The facilitating factors were using A.V aids in classroom, each member of group participate with preparation, and relaxed environment. Inhabiting factors were competition, diverse personality of members, and no-weightage of group members’ effort. </em></p> Aqsa Azam, Humaira Hina Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:09:35 +0000 A Study of Leadership Styles of Female Elementary School Principals in Rawalpindi Pakistan <p><em>The research investigated the leadership styles of the female school principals. The population was 32 elementary school principals in total in Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. The quantitative research design was utilized by the researchers. For the data collection, a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used. It was Leadership styles questionnaire 5X rater developed by Northouse in 2008. It was used to measure the Democratic Leadership Style, Authoritarian Leadership Style, and Lassies faire leadership Style. Descriptive and statistical methods were used to analyse the data. The results showed that among the total of 22 school principals, 16 were practicing democratic leadership style, 4 school principal were practicing authoritarian leadership style, 1 female principal was practicing both democratic and authoritarian leadership style and further, 1 school principal was practicing laissez-fare leadership style. Moreover, the results showed that the leadership style that is emerging as the most popular leadership style among the female school principals as compared to the authoritarian and laissez faire leadership styles at elementary school level was democratic leadership styles. It was also confirmed that the female school principals were democratic leaders.</em></p> Fatima Saddique, Dr. Bushra Inayat Raja Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 02 Feb 2023 05:45:47 +0000 English Reading Difficulties and Strategies for Improvement at Primary Level: A Phenomenological Study <p><em>English is an alien language. The teachers and students are facing difficulties in reading competency regarding, comprehension, speed, shyness, stuttering and stammering, jerks, fluency, pronunciation, accent intonation, and stress. The purpose of the study is to explore the difficulties in English reading competency and to develop strategies for the improvement of reading competency at the primary level. The key objectives of the study were to explore the difficulties in reading competency and to develop strategies for the improvement of reading competency of 5<sup>th</sup>-grade students at the primary level. These research questions were framed. What are the difficulties in reading competency faced by 5<sup>th</sup>-grade students? What strategies are needed to develop the reading competency of 5<sup>th</sup>-grade students? The study was qualitative and phenomenological in nature. The study was carried out through interviews with primary-level teachers and 5<sup>th</sup>-grade students. The sample was 12 participants, 6 were teachers and 6 were 5<sup>th</sup>-grade students. The analysis of the gathered data was made with the thematic analysis of Clarke and Braun (2019). Major findings were that students’ lack of interest, mal-recruitment of engineers, MBA degree holders and lack of relevant educational background, adhocism, contract appointment and hiring teachers’ trend, poor and uneducated parents and incompetency of teachers in the subject of English were the key difficulties in reading competency. These strategies were recommended. The teachers may be recruited who have Master's degrees in English with educational qualifications like B.Ed., M.Ed., MPhil, and Ph.D. in English or education. It was recommended that English Language teachers must provide basic reading skills to students to equip themselves with reading strategies for improvement in reading skills. It is also suggested that teachers may be given refresher programs through English experts for the improvement of reading competency.</em></p> Sawaira Idrees, Syeda Laila Saeed, Muhammad Nauman Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Land and the Waste: Meaninglessness and Absurdity in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land <p><em>After the World War-1, there spread chaos and disillusionment in society, faith got shattered and life became meaningless. Jean-Paul Sartre’s version of Existentialism is based on this meaninglessness and absurdity. Man faces an absurd and meaningless existence in this chaotic world. Thus these two are the main tropes of Sartre’s philosophy. T. S. Eliot also lived in that chaotic age and composed his long narrative poem The Waste Land (1930) after the World War. This poem is based on the consequences of the war that caused absurdity and chaos depriving human life of real significance and value. This study explores and analyses these aspects of meaninglessness and absurdity in The Waste Land (1930) in the light of Sartre’s philosophy and contends to say that almost all of the characters presented in the poem encounter meaningless and chaotic lives. Their lives are without any real purpose and are quite insignificant in a chaotic and disorderly world. So the land is full of the waste only. This meaningless life is nothing but a heap of the waste. By presenting this picture of chaotic life, Eliot intends to forward a solution in the form of rebirth of the lost religious faith and moral values. This research is significant because the aspects of meaninglessness and absurdity accurately relate to our current times where human beings face real existential threat and the significance of life is being lost. This awareness may lead to an immediate solution. Moreover, this study may provoke further research in this area in order to bring out the relevance of literary texts to all times and human life everywhere.</em></p> Dr. Yasir Arafat, Muhammad Qasim, Tahir Alam Awan Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Thu, 22 Dec 2022 13:25:20 +0000 Rousseau behind Ruskin’s Mask: A Critique of Ruskin’s Views on Women and Their Education <p><em>John Ruskin’s work Sesame and Lilies (1913) consists of his two lectures delivered in 1864 with the titles “Of Kings’ Treasuries” and “Of Queens’ Garden”. In these lectures, he defines manhood and womanhood simultaneously by using crafted words and flattering tone. Although he seems to stand with the women and calls them queens in men’s kingdoms, yet he trickily draws lines between men and women and offers two types of education for both sexes. He was successful in befooling the Victorian women and early feminists but later feminists hated and condemned his work because of its anti-feminist approach. This research evaluates Ruskin’s views on women and their education by using the yardstick of Rousseau’s concepts expressed in his famous work Emile, or on Education (1979). This analysis is interesting because Rousseau was clear and bold anti-feminist who advocated different education for the imaginary mistress of Emile, Sophie. According to him, Sophie, the wife of Emile, ought to be educated to be a good wife and good mother but different from men. This study finds that there was, in fact, Rousseau behind Ruskin’s mask when he was talking of women and their education in a flattering and seductive tone. So, it unmasks Ruskin’s patriarchal views regarding women. This analysis is significant because it alerts and warns women to be aware of people like Ruskin who try to damage their cause in disguise of a well-wisher. Moreover, this study may provoke further research in this field focusing on the comparison of different works of prose</em>.</p> Muhammad Qasim, Tahir Alam Awan, Dr. Yasir Arafat Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Thu, 22 Dec 2022 13:11:57 +0000 Dyal Singh Majithia & his Legacy of Crown Rule in Indian Sub-continent: Case of Dyal Singh Mansion <p><em>The research is an endeavour to pay tribute to a legend “Dyal Singh Majithia” and an effort to safeguard his legacy of the crown rule in sub-continent. Dyal Singh was entitled as a proud son of Punjab due to his contributions to introduce modern education. He bequeathed assets of worth around 30 lack Indian rupees in charity to establish various institutes through a trust. Under the umbrella of this trust, Dyal Singh College, library, a hall and a mansion was constructed in Lahore. Selected case study, Dyal Singh Mansion is a master piece of colonial era and remarkable example of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the historic urban fabric of the Mall Road, Lahore during 20<sup>th</sup> century. Apart from façade, rest of the faces is in a crumbling state and illegally encroached by residents and vehicular repair workshops. Data has been collected by using desk-based studies, from relevant departments. Visual surveys have been conducted to identify causes of decay. In the conclusion, we have to formulate a policy to conserve this heritage being part of Mall road and legacy of British period Sikh heritage during colonial period.</em></p> Asia Jabeen, Mazhar Munir Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Wed, 21 Dec 2022 06:14:06 +0000 Investigating the Impact of Formative Feedback on Writing Skills of English Language Learners at Undergraduate Level in South Punjab, Pakistan <p><em>In Pakistan English language is taught from primary to the level of graduation as compulsory subject. A lot of efforts have been made by government to improve teaching of English as foreign language in Pakistan in order to achieve the proficiency, but unfortunately, it has been reported that the competency level of the students is not up to the mark. Such a deteriorating situation of competency majorly has been observed in writing skill of the students. Formative feedback is considered as the powerful tool which enhances the performance of the students in the process of learning and production skills i.e. writing and speaking. The present study is aimed to trace out the impact of formative feedback on the writing skill of English language learners at undergraduate level in South Punjab, Pakistan. The data for the present study has been collected through mixed method approach. Pre- Test, Post-Test, Open ended questionnaire and follow up interviews were used as tools of data collection. There were two randomly selected groups of BS English students, semester 7<sup>th</sup> studying at Bahadur Sub Campus Layyah, Bahauddin Zakaria University Multan, Pakistan. There were 25 students in each group i.e. controlled and experimental. The writing skills of the experimental group were administered through formative feedback for four months. The analyzed data reveals that formative feedback has significant impact on improving writing skills and confidence level of the students. It is suggested that teachers should adopt formative feedback in their classrooms to make their teaching more effective, productive, creative and interactive.</em></p> Abdul Rashid, Yasir Khan, Unaiza Khudai Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Tue, 20 Dec 2022 06:14:25 +0000 Post Pandemic Job Satisfaction of the Teachers of Private Secondary Schools of Karachi: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Male and Female Teachers <p><em>Job satisfaction is a pleasurable tendency towards an individual’s job. It enables one to realize his/her maximum potential to accomplish organizational goals productively. There is a strong correlation between job satisfaction and leadership, absenteeism, turnover, exhaustion, physical and psychological well-being, content life, productivity personality, and organizational citizenship. The world's top educational organizations view it as being extremely important for development. This cross-sectional comparative study focuses on the impact of achievement, altruism, autonomy, comfort, safety, and status gender-wise on the job satisfaction of the teachers of private secondary schools in Karachi. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 25 was used for the data analysis of the study. There were (n=210) teachers of private secondary schools who participated in the study. An independent sample t-test about the comparison between the JS level on its six dimensions of the male and female teachers working in private secondary schools in Karachi. The analysis of the data showed significant differences. The study's findings revealed that male and female teachers had significantly different degrees of job satisfaction associated with various facets. The female teachers were much more satisfied than the male teachers in success, altruism, autonomy, comfort, safety, and status.</em></p> Shameer Khokhar, Manzoor Ahmed, Dr. Shah Mir Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Sat, 17 Dec 2022 13:34:00 +0000 Role of Rater’s Knowledge and Experience: Shaping Ratee’s Reactions under the Umbrella of Systems Theory in Performance Appraisals <p><em>The paper aims to investigate the role of the rater, a key player in the performance appraisal system (PAS), in determining the ratee’s self-efficacy. In this regard, the current study highlights the role of rater’s knowledge and experience in conducting just appraisals by making the performance appraisal processes and distribution of resources fairer. The study investigated different components of the PAS under the lens of systems theory and the upper echelon theory. The study used survey methods to collect data with the help of self-administered questionnaires from raters and ratees (252 in total) working in different organizations operating in various sectors of the economy. The collected data were analyzed using SmartPLS-4. The results revealed that the rater’s knowledge about the PAS do not predict the ratee’s self-efficacy. Nevertheless, the rater’s knowledge significantly predicted the ratee’s self-efficacy through procedural and distributive justice. Also, the rater’s experience in conducting the performance appraisal conditionally predicted the indirect relationship between the rater’s knowledge and self-efficacy through procedural and distributive justice. The study provides invaluable insights for the users of performance appraisals and policymakers by highlighting the importance of the rater’s knowledge alongside the rater’s experience in shaping positive ratee reactions.</em></p> M. Atif Raza, Malik IkramUllah, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Tue, 13 Dec 2022 05:19:57 +0000 A Comparative Study of Public and Private Secondary Schools Students on Academic Achievement, Engagement and Self-Regulation in Mathematics <p><em>Self-regulation is about getting ready to take challenges regarding education. Self-regulated learning removes disinterest and demotivation regarding academics. Objective of the study was to compare public and private sector secondary school students on academic achievement, mathematics’ engagement and self-regulation. The descriptive research design was used to find out difference in public and private sector secondary school students on academic achievement in mathematics, mathematics’ engagement and self-regulation in students learning. Three research instruments were used in present survey study. Students’ engagement in mathematics classroom, a questionnaire on self-regulated learning, mathematics achievement test were used to investigate the impact of self-regulated learning on students’ achievement and engagement in mathematics classroom in public and private sector secondary schools. By using proportionate random sampling technique, eighty schools were selected from the list of schools taken from internet sources.. Both descriptive (Mean Score) and inferential statistics (t-test) were employed. Findings of the study were obtained by comparing self-regulation, engagement and mathematics achievement that in private secondary school students were better than public sector secondary schools. This study might be helpful for school administrators.</em></p> Mahwish Shehzadi, Dr. Tahira Batool, Dr. Tahira Kalsoom Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Sun, 11 Dec 2022 15:22:48 +0000 Do input (s) matter in Second Language Acquisition (SLA)? Evidence from the Learners’ Outcomes <p><em>The paper has investigated the role of L2 input (exposure) on learners’ outcomes in a second language learning setting among Pakistani students at the secondary level. The data were collected from one hundred and sixty-seven participants through a questionnaire (checklist) and a test from randomly selected English Language learners’ samples and analyzed through SPSS. The results have confirmed that the students of the private schools receive higher-level of inputs (English) than the state school students: t (167)=7.89,p&lt;.05. The analysis also indicated that there have been statistically significant effects on the learners’ parents’ family income and education level.&nbsp; However, the results presented no significant difference in terms of gender.&nbsp; The findings may help teachers to improve their classroom interactions by providing better input(s) opportunities. It also proves that the students, who avail ample inputs, are more proficient and accurate in their production and commit fewer errors and mistakes in their outcomes. Moreover, it may help the authorities and policymakers to devise policies, and curricula and design materials accordingly.</em></p> Raj Wali Khan, Mian Farman Ullah, Masood Khan Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Sat, 10 Dec 2022 13:16:49 +0000 Effect of Implicit Theories of Intelligencee on Students’ Achievement in the Subject of Mathematics at Elementary School Level <p><em>A person’s mindset, or Implicit Theory of Intelligence (ITI), has been linked to many factors such as motivation to learn and academic achievement. This study set intended to determine how ITI affected children' academic performance in mathematics at the elementary school level. Under the typology of positivism quantitative approach was used. The study was carried through quasi experimental design. Two intact groups of grade eight students of public sector school were selected randomly. Lesson plans based on ITI were validated by the experts. The intervention period was of six weeks. Math Achievement Test (MAT) was used to find out the effect of ITI on academic achievement of students in mathematics at elementary school level. The findings indicated that ITI significantly impacted pupils' motivation and academic success in mathematics. The study recommended that the ITI activities may be used by the teachers for the elementary school students’ math achievement.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Naeem Sarwar, Dr. M. Ashfaq, Dr. Adnan Maqbool Copyright (c) 2022 sjesr Mon, 05 Dec 2022 15:18:45 +0000