sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> en-US info@sjesr.org.pk (Muhammad Idrees) info@sjesr.org.pk (Web Admin) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessing the Effectiveness of Quad in Maritime Containment of China in the Indo-Pacific Region https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1011 <p><em>The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) comprises of likeminded countries India, Australia, US and Japan. It is a significant player in the Indo-Pacific region amidst a growing Chinese influence. This research paper assesses the effectiveness of Quad in the maritime containment of China. The paper also circulates around individual national interests that may hinder the effectiveness of Quad while also underscoring its limitations. The research was conducted using a qualitative research method. Secondary sources such as journal articles, news, and official joint statements by the alliance were consulted to formulate this paper. The alliance is subjugated to the potential impact on the future of the Indo-Pacific region. Lastly, its effectiveness is quite uncertain towards a counter balancing China and its significant implications for regional security and freedom of navigation. In terms of future prospects, the maritime security and its threats will keep on changing with evolving time.</em></p> Hamail Tahir, Dr. Fouzia Amin Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1011 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of 4D/5D Scheduling in Planning for Delay Reduction in Construction Projects https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1007 <p><em>Construction projects globally are frequently plagued by chronic issues such as delays and cost overruns. This study examined the feasibility of incorporating 4D (3D + time) and 5D (3D + time + cost) scheduling methodologies in construction planning with the aim of enhancing project efficiency. This study conducted an examination of the advantages associated with increased visualisation, improved task sequencing, proactive delay detection, optimised resource allocation, and integrated cost control while utilising 4D/5D building information modelling (BIM). The implementation of 4D/5D techniques has resulted in reductions in delays ranging from 15% to 50%, as evidenced by global case studies. The present study employed a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess hypothetical projects, aiming to quantify possible savings in terms of time and money. The findings reveal a decrease of 190 days and 22.4 million PKR, respectively, in these two dimensions. The adoption of 4D/5D BIM resulted in a notable increase in stakeholder satisfaction, with ratings improving from 2.6 to 4.2 out of 5. The study's findings indicate that, despite encountering several challenges, the use of 4D/5D scheduling in the Pakistani construction sector yields notable improvements in efficiency and benefits for stakeholders. The recommendations encompass the development of standardised data, software with interoperability capabilities, training programs, and collaborative initiatives within the industry. These measures are crucial for the successful implementation of 4D/5D Building Information Modelling (BIM). Additional investigation might examine the long-term return on investment, the use of these techniques in infrastructure projects, and comparison assessments with traditional methods.</em></p> Hafiz Muhammad Qamar Abbas, Shahan Mehmood Cheema, Dr. Muhammad Faisal Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1007 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 "Exploring the Impact of Online Learning on Student Academic Performance in Higher Education" https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1012 <p><em>This research investigates the impact of online learning on student engagement and academic performance in the higher education landscape. In a sample of 300 students from public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, the researcher examined online learning experiences, demographic factors, and academic performance. The descriptive statistics revealed moderately positive online learning experiences and moderately favorable academic performance on average, accompanied by significant variability within the sample. Correlation analysis, however, unveiled very weak and often statistically insignificant relationships between these variables, suggesting complex and non-linear dynamics at play. Consequently, we advocate for personalized support, adaptable pedagogical approaches, inclusivity, accessibility, and interdisciplinary collaboration as essential components to enhance online learning. Moreover, this study calls for continued research to unearth the intricate dynamics of online education's influence on student outcomes, driving the evolution of evidence-based practices in higher education.</em> The study underlines the necessity for continued research into online education's complex dynamics and student outcomes. This includes studying new technology, learning analytics, and pedagogical methods to inform evidence-based practices in higher education.</p> Anam Nazneen Tara, Asma Tariq, Yan Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1012 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Impact of Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities on Job Satisfaction in Educational Professions in Pakistan’ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1013 <p><em>This study examined 'Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities in Pakistani Educational Professions,' analyses of gender discrimination, perceived disparities, and work satisfaction among professors in public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, and captures the essence of the study. The nature of the study was descriptive. A stratified random sample technique, used in survey methodology with a quantitative approach, ensures improved external validity. The population of the study was male and female university teachers in the public sector in the district of Punjab. Credible conclusions are generated using a standardized questionnaire with predetermined scales and careful statistical analysis of the information gathered from 600 teachers. The study demonstrates a negative association between perceived disparities and job happiness, reveals subtle differences among faculties, and reveals increased gender discrimination against female professors. Although there is no statistically significant in the average level of job satisfaction, the study emphasizes its practical importance by using large effect sizes. Given that the study offers practical advice for decision-makers in government and education, there is an urgent need to promote inclusive workplaces.</em></p> Anam Nazneen Tara, Asma Tariq, Yan Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1013 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Demonstrative Determiners in Pashto https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/481 <p><em>The existence of determiner phrases and their different manifestations in number, gender, and case have been studied and proved in English in many research studies. Many languages other than English need this investigation to establish a sound hypothesis about the universal language structure. This study was an attempt to find out the structure of the determiner phrase in the Pashto. It also investigated the equivalents of the English determiner phrase in the Pashto. It used the spoken corpus of Pashto as primary data. In addition, short stories and novels written by literary writers in the Pashto have been used as secondary data. Moreover, intensive group discussion with native speakers of Pashto has also been utilized as another secondary data source. The minimalist program was used to guide and understand the syntactic structure of languages. It was followed by the determiner phrase hypothesis. The hypothesis states that a noun is headed by its determiner in a noun phrase. Data were analyzed within the framework of the determiner phrase hypothesis. The study shows that a noun in the determiner phrase is not determined by a definite or indefinite article in Pashto. The determiner phrase is inflected for number, gender, and case in Pashto. Furthermore, the Pashto determiner phrase is different from English in terms of medial demonstrative determiners. The study is significant as it provides insight into the structure of the Pashto determiner phrase.</em></p> Imdad Ali, Dr. Sikandr Ali, Humera Sharif Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/481 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Discrimination in Job Titles in English Language: A Corpus-Based Critical Study https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/579 <p><em>Males and females have the same rights as members of society but females are discriminated against in terms of job titles. Fairclough's three-dimensional model was used to identify, expose, and challenge the implicit ideologies behind the use of such job titles and pronouns used after these job titles. This research is a mixed method research that aims to analyze the use of male-representing, female-representing, and neutral job titles and the use of pronouns after the use of these job titles in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>15 job titles were selected for the study. Only those job titles were selected for which female-representing and neutral job titles were available and that are more frequently used by the people. Sketch Engine was used to know the frequencies of these job titles.&nbsp; The frequencies of these job titles were compared to know what type of job titles are used more in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>The study showed that there is a big difference between the frequencies of male-representing and female-representing job titles and the frequency of male-specific pronouns is more than the frequency of female-specific pronouns after the use of male-oriented and female-oriented job titles and this leads to discrimination of females. It is suggested that job titles should be used appropriately so that no gender can be discriminated against.</em></p> Dr. Mansoor Ali, Dr. Abdus Samad, Mr. Tariq Amin Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/579 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Patriarchal Ideology: A Feminist Study in Pakistani Short Stories Fiction https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/992 <p><em>This paper intends to examine the position of women during the patriarchal structure to become strong enough for honorable survival. We apply Gerda Lerner's creation of Patriarchy (1989) in the present study. Patriarchy provokes Women voiceless through various assumptions and ideologies. The study has been conducted through textual analysis of Pakistani Short stories while focusing on different customs and events represented by Pakistani feminists to highlight the patriarchal structures. It shows that women have been treated as objects without caring for their desires. Their disrespect for patriarchal notions may deprive them of their existence as human beings. It also pinpoints that women are oppressed, and subjugated, through patriarchal structures. We discussed female characters in the Pakistani Short story writers' works Shahrazad's Golden Leopard and Masroor's The Monkey Wound. Any struggle to get liberation from oppression results in sexist violence.</em></p> Anisa Sadiq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/992 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Students’ Ubiquitous Learning through Web 2.0 Tool on Students’ 21st Century Skills: Critical Thinking and Collaboration https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/933 <p><em>Ubiquitous learning is transforming education by enabling human-focused learning through seamless access to resources from anywhere. In addition, these tools enhance context understanding and make it easy to interact between real and digital learning resources, all while offering individualized learning opportunities. This research surveyed public sector university teachers in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to gather their opinions on how Web 2.0 tools and ubiquitous learning are affecting the development of 21st-century learning skills in students. The research aimed to assess the impact of Web 2.0 tools for ubiquitous learning (UL) on the critical thinking and collaboration skills of graduate-level students. To collect data, the study administered a self-developed questionnaire with 50 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale to 500 university teachers. This constituted the primary data for the research. According to the findings, ubiquitous learning has a noteworthy effect on fostering critical thinking and collaboration skills in university students. To make ubiquitous learning successful, both private and public sector universities must have adequate ICT infrastructure and provide teacher training that focuses on ICT-based teaching methods. The study can assist university teachers in establishing a ubiquitous learning (UL) environment that employs web 2.0 tools, thereby enabling students to effectively enhance their 21st-century learning skills, including critical thinking and collaboration.</em></p> Dr. Safia Urooj, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shahid Farooq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/933 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students’ Perspective on Digital Education Interventions During COVID-19 Pandemic and Academic Performance of University Students in Punjab https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1010 <p><em>This study aimed to comprehensively assess university students' perspectives on digital education during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on academic performance. It focused on gauging satisfaction with digital learning, identifying challenges faced, and providing insights for future educational strategies. Sampling 1,309 students from Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts departments across six public sector universities, the study revealed that female students exhibited greater awareness of online learning. While gender didn't affect computer skills or gadget availability, more females had reliable internet access (51%) compared to males (43%). Challenges included connectivity issues, time management, and power outages. Students expressed moderate satisfaction with study environments and support, signaling a need for improved online education solutions. Regional variations underscored the necessity for tailored strategies to address disparities in perceptions and experiences across different areas.</em></p> Imtiaz Alam, Dr. Hamid Khan Niazi, Dr. Muhammad Khalid Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/1010 Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance A Moderated Mediation Model https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/981 <p><em>The current study examined the relationship of Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance with the mediating role of Career Motivation. In addition, psychological capital was used as a moderated mediator in the model. The survey approach was used, both the hard copies and online application link were shared with respondents for their response. The data was collected from 433 respondents from the government departments with grade 17 and above using convenience sampling technique. Career motivation mediated the relationship between ostracism and façade of conformity and between the ostracism and the employee’s performance. The interaction effect of ostracism and psychological capital was insignificant on career motivation. The mediators had an indirect effect on these relationships but this mediation model was not moderated by the psychological capital. The organization shall develop such policies which may provide the opportunities to employees for better interaction like get together, group competition, morning meeting and plan for action so that an employee does not feel isolated.</em></p> Azizullah Kakar, Prof. Dr. Jahanvash Karim, Prof. Dr. Zainab Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/981 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Psychological Impact of Domestic Violence on Teenage Development in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/982 <p><em>Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Purple Hibiscus shows how Kambili and Jaja, two teenage siblings, ultimately develop a tendency to combat their psychological tensions in a domestically abused environment under the God-like dictatorship of their father. Their father’s extremely imposing attitude induces anxiety in both teenagers while subjugating their necessary freedom.&nbsp; The research focuses on the development of both siblings as adolescents, as adolescence is an important phase of life in developing a person’s individuality. The work attempts to show the necessary transition in both siblings, Kambili and Jaja, leading to a healthy growth process as they display defiance to overcome the psychologically traumatic experience.</em></p> Ifrah Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/982 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Political Rhetoric in the Pre and Post-Election (2013) Speeches of Imran Khan https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/984 <p><em>The study is a political rhetorical analysis of the pre and post-election 2013 speeches of Imran &nbsp;&nbsp;Khan. The study explores the use of five canons of Aristotelian rhetoric i.e. Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery and Memory by the Pakistan politician. Also, the study presents a comparative analysis of the pre and post-election speeches. A total of 16 speeches of Imran Khan, 8 speeches from pre and post-election eras each were examined to collect data. The data was divided into both numerical and narrative data sets according to themes developed based on the Aristotelian Classical Theory of Rhetoric. The frequency count for the recurrent data was also evaluated to provide in-depth knowledge of the most recurring rhetorical device. In addition to frequency tables, the study was also illustrated with graphs to envision the reader with the graphical representation of the comparative analysis of the pre and post-election data. The analysis of the data exposes that Imran Khan effectively employed the canons of Classical Rhetoric. Imran Khan used Invention to construct arguments with assistance from the three modes of persuasion i.e. logos, ethos and pathos. From the analysis, it was exposed that Imran Khan used logos (logic) mostly to discover and present arguments both in Pre and Post-election speeches. The arrangement was used to organize the speech in a meaningful manner to intact the interests of the audience. The style was employed to intensify the integrity of the arguments presented. Moreover, the analysis revealed that among the stylistic devices, tropes were used most frequently by the speaker. The canon of delivery was employed to create speeches to be more effective for the listeners. The analysis of the speeches revealed that Imran Khan used falling and rising intonation to make his arguments sound like phenomena for his listeners. Lastly, the canon of memory showed that Imran Khan employed mnemonic devices to bring support to his arguments. The study's findings revealed that Imran Khan successfully employed Aristotelian Rhetoric to present his propositions attractively among his audiences. Keeping in view the limitations, the study nevertheless contributes to the teaching of the art of public speaking and inculcates the political figures of Pakistan to enhance their speech deliverance strategies.</em></p> Dr. Sara Khan, Sumaira Saleem, Dr. Saima Chattha Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/984 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Impact of Explicit Teaching of Reading Strategies on the Reading Motivation of Pakistani ESL Learners https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/980 <p><em>Researchers advise teachers to help students develop a passion for reading to enhance their reading abilities. This action research aims to ascertain the effect of explicit teaching of reading strategies on Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners. The students received explicit reading strategy instruction over a four-month period in two cycles. The data was gathered with the help of a questionnaire i.e. Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) before and after the intervention stage. The findings show that teaching reading strategies&nbsp;explicitly ensures a positive impact on students’ motivation to read. As a result, it is discovered that students can get motivated to read if they are familiar with reading strategies, but what is the&nbsp;primary step to create initially is an interactive and interesting environment in the classroom. This study is important for language educators and teacher educators who want to motivate students. It additionally reinforces the usefulness of various existing reading strategies&nbsp;for motivating learners at a Pakistani private institution.</em></p> Zehra Hasan, Dr. Bushra Ahmed Khurram, Amna Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/980 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An investigation into Dichotomy of Teachers’ Professional Inputs and Parents’ Satisfaction in Public Sector Schools https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/987 <p><em>Teachers’ professionalism is a backbone of school culture. The parents, whose children experience the school’s culture, determine their level of satisfaction. Therefore, a school is a place where teachers’ professional level affects not only its own culture but also determine parents’ dissatisfaction. Our study explores teachers’ professionalism which shapes up school’s culture that consequently make the children’s parents dis/satisfied about schools. We used exploratory design for collecting qualitative data to achieve the objectives. Thematic approach was used for analyzing the data. An interview protocol was developed as a research instrument and by using purposive sampling data were collected from 10 teachers and 05 parents. The results concluded that majority of the primary school teachers seem us less professional which ultimately puts adverse effects on school culture and also makes the children’s parents less satisfied. The study recommends that school culture of our primary schools need to be improved by developing professionalism among teachers through introducing them professional courses in their in-service training programs, up grading their status for making a teaching profession more attractive for the mass of people in Pakistani society.</em></p> Shah Faisal Nawaz, Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan, Iram Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/987 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/993 <p><em>R. G. Collingwood is supposed to be one of the most important Aesthetes of 20<sup>th</sup> Century. He was a multi-talented person having original ideas in the fields of Philosophical History (his most famous book is ‘Idea of History’), Aesthetics and Anthropology. He was a practitioner in the field of Archaeology and Music. His second most famous book is ‘Principles of Art.’ He is supposed to be an original philosopher of Art too. His Philosophy of Art has much to do and has much connections with the Aesthetics of Immanuel Kant. Kant was a multi-dimensional genius, presenting before the world very original and outstanding ideas about Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics and also Aesthetics. This article is an attempt to understand the influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood and to present before the readers the great similarities between the Aesthetic ideas of these two philosophers. According to Kant, Aesthetics is the fourth most important function of human mind. Apart from pure reasoning, pragmatic thinking and moral concerns, Aesthetics is that aspect of human mind which deals with beauty. The problem with the Aesthetics of Kant or the Aesthetics of Collingwood is that both of the philosophers present Aesthetics as the divider and in the humble opinion of the writer of this article it is not divider but a connector – connector of moral, pragmatic and pure reason.</em></p> Dr. Muhmmad Jawwad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/993 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Leadership Styles and Their Influence on Project Team Performance https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/998 <p><em>In today's dynamic and competitive business environment, effective leadership stands as a cornerstone for successful project outcomes. This research delves into the multifaceted relationship between leadership styles and project team performance, exploring the intricate interplay between various leadership approaches and team dynamics. Utilizing a mixed-methods research design, this study comprehensively investigates the impact of leadership styles – including transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, democratic, and autocratic – on project teams across diverse industries. The quantitative phase involves structured surveys administered to project team members and leaders, aiming to quantify the prevalence of different leadership styles within various organizational contexts. Simultaneously, the qualitative phase employs in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, capturing the nuanced experiences and perceptions of team members and leaders regarding the influence of leadership styles on motivation, collaboration, and overall project success. Through rigorous analysis, this research reveals intriguing patterns and correlations between specific leadership styles and project team performance metrics such as quality, timeliness, and efficiency. Moreover, it sheds light on the underlying mechanisms through which leadership impacts team dynamics, uncovering the pivotal role of communication, empowerment, and adaptability in shaping collaborative efforts. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the significance of contextual factors, including project complexity and organizational culture, as crucial influencers of the leadership-team performance nexus. By understanding these contextual nuances, organizations can tailor their leadership strategies to optimize team synergy and enhance project outcomes. The findings presented herein not only contribute to academic discourse in the fields of leadership and project management but also offer practical insights for project managers and organizational leaders. By aligning leadership styles with the unique demands of their projects, businesses can foster a culture of innovation, resilience, and high performance, ultimately achieving sustainable success in today’s competitive landscape.</em></p> Muhammad Abrar Ahmed, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Shahan Mehmood Cheema Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/998 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions of College Principals and Faculty Members Regarding Administrative Problems and Job Performance https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/973 <p>Efficient administration of educational institutions is vital for their advancement and growth. Principals play a key role in providing conducive environment for instruction and students’ academic achievement. This study aims to examine the viewpoints of college principals and faculty members regarding the challenges faced in administration and their performance as college principal. A quantitative approach was used to investigate this research problem, employing a descriptive survey design to gather and analyse data. The research study focused on principals and faculty members from government degree and postgraduate colleges for boys and girls in the Malakand Division, Pakistan. A sample of 140 faculty members and 28 principals was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Data from the participants were collected by using a self-developed questionnaire, which was validated by a panel of experts and its reliability was found through Cronbach’s alpha values which were found for administrative problems and job performance as 0.732 and 0.856 respectively. The study results showed that college principals faced various administrative problem included problems related to teaching and learning process, lack of availability of resources, maintaining good relationship with community, lack of financial resources, lack of capacity building programmes, and political interference. These administrative problems in turn effect lack of exhibiting instructional leadership, evaluating teachers and students’ performance, maintaining conducive working environment, preparing and utilizing budget, and implementing policies. Capacity building and continuous professional development programmes may be worthwhile strategies for improving the administrative, managerial and leadership roles of college principals.</p> Iqbal Amin Khan, Sami ul Haq, Faridullah Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/973 Mon, 26 Jun 2023 04:54:18 +0000 Managing Diabetes at Household Level; A case study of Diabetic Patients in Rawalpindi City https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/977 <p><em>In the middle- and low-income developing countries like Pakistan treatment of diabetes is very expensive and people can’t afford the cost of medications in this way households face many financial hardships. Therefore, the study was focused on how cultural myths influence the patients in managing diabetes at household level to avoid the use of medications. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship of treatment cost and household budget and further to explore the cultural myths in regards to managing diabetes. The study was carried out in Cantonment area of Rawalpindi city. Further the research study was qualitative in nature and selecting 20 diabetic patients through purposive sampling technique of non-probability sampling type. Moreover, for this study research methodology was exploratory and data were collected through face-to-face interview. Interview has been recorded with due permission of the respondents and transcribed in order to analyze or generate various themes. In this study findings identified in six theme, mode of treatment, affordability of treatment, bearing of expenditure, budget disturbance, Cultural belief and practices, and Cultural myths in management of diabetes. these were found that patients who bear expenses on self without any health insurance or not having any panel of hospital facing issue to manage the diabetes. Due to costly medicines their household budget was badly disturbed and most of them let the visit of doctor, use medication only once in a day just to pass the whole month from these medicines. Further most of the patients never conduct hba1c test regularly and the reason is non-affordability of test cost. Only those who are on the panel of certain hospitals conduct this test after every three months. Furthermore, due to costly medications patients looking for alternative solutions as they choose cultural belief and myths to control diabetes just to satisfy the self.</em></p> Iqra Riasat, Mahwish Zeeshan, Dr. Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/977 Thu, 22 Jun 2023 15:37:46 +0000 Violence against Women: A comparative study of Islamic (with reference to Pakistan) and non-Islamic Jurisdictions https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/966 <p><em>The present study aims to examine the evil of violence against women within different cultures of the world. The research focuses on conducting a comparative analysis to shed light on the patterns of violence experienced by women in Islamic and non-Islamic contexts. The study explores various forms of violence, including physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, with respect to, domestic violence, sexual assault, honour-based violence, familial abuse, discriminatory practices and cultural injustices. By examining the experiences of women across different cultural, social, and economic backgrounds, this study seeks to identify effective measures to address and prevent violence against women. Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, this study contributes to the broader understanding of violence against women and provides valuable insights, strategies and policies for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates working towards gender equality and the eradication of violence against women. The study has followed the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> Farah Amir, Nadia Noreen, Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/966 Mon, 12 Jun 2023 05:01:49 +0000 The study "Unravelling the Impact: Assessing the Impacts of Rising Rates of Interest and Inflation on Individual Finances" https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/972 <p><em>The impact of rising interest rates and hyperinflation on personal finances is examined in this abstract. It draws attention to how these two economic aspects are interconnected and what it means for people's financial security. This abstract offers insights into how changes in mortgage rates and inflation affect personal finances by looking at the impact on costs of borrowing, deposits, savings, and purchasing power. The link between rate of interest and borrowing costs is the first topic covered in the abstract. When interest rates increase, borrowing money becomes increasingly costly for people, which has an impact on many facets of personal finances like credit card debt, home loans, and auto loans. According to the abstract, increasing borrowing costs can result in bigger debt loads, decreased affordability, and possible difficulties with debt payback. The abstract also looks at how inflation affects people's personal budgets. Over time, inflation reduces the monetary value of money, raising the cost of goods and services. The abstract focuses on how inflationary affects the costs of living, covering necessities like housing, food, and medical care. It emphasizes how crucial it is to factor inflation into long-term financial planning and budgeting in order to preserve financial stability and lessen the loss of wealth. The abstract also discusses how the rate of interest and inflation interact. It illustrates how interest rates are frequently employed by central banks as a tool to manage inflation. By decreasing consumption and slowing economic expansion, an increase in financing costs can help control inflation. However, this additionally has a negative impact on a person's personal finances, especially if they have investments or loans with variable rates or loans that are susceptible to changes in interest rates. The abstract also looks at ways that people might manage the effects of inflation and higher interest rates on their personal budgets. It talks on the value of financial literacy, investment diversification, responsible management of debt, and proactive steps like refinancing or modifying spending patterns to accommodate shifting economic conditions. </em></p> Mohsan Ali, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/972 Tue, 06 Jun 2023 06:23:37 +0000 Emotional Intelligence: Understanding, Assessing, and Cultivating the Key to Personal and Professional Success https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/970 <p><em>A complicated idea that has received a lot of attention in workplace behavior and psychology is emotional intelligence (EI). It includes the capacity to recognize, comprehend, control, and make use of one's own and other people's emotions. The components of emotional intelligence, how it is measured, and how it affects societal and individual functioning are all covered in this brief. Emotional perception, or effectively identifying and understanding emotions, is the first aspect of emotional intelligence. Other skills, such as emotional comprehension, which entails understanding the origins and effects of emotions, are built upon this ability. Emotional management is the capacity to manage and regulate one's own feelings, resulting in flexible reactions and better judgment. Utilizing emotions to promote problem-solving, creativity, and relationship-building is another aspect of emotional intelligence. To gauge emotional intelligence, several self-report and ability-based tests have been devised. While ability-based tests evaluate achievement overall tasks needing emotional competency, self-report methods ask participants to rate their own emotional skills. These evaluations offer insightful information on emotional strengths and deficits, enabling focused therapy. According to research, emotional intelligence has a big influence on how people perform. It is related to expanded leadership potential, better leadership skills, and better work output. Relationships are more likely to succeed and be rewarding for those with greater emotional intelligence since these people often have superior social skills, sympathy, and methods for resolving disputes. Additionally essential in social settings, emotional intelligence promotes collaboration, teamwork, and successful dispute resolution.</em></p> Muhammad Habib, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Mohsan Ali Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/970 Tue, 06 Jun 2023 06:02:26 +0000 Comparison to Perceptions of Teachers and Head Teachers about Accountability Measures for Public School Improvement in Punjab https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/968 <p><em>Every government faces the pressure of quality and accountability as it has become an international agenda. Countries are shaping their policies according to the interest of stakeholders in globalization and international competition. They plan to establish high-performing school systems. Developed and developing countries are also struggling with this movement to ensure the quality and accountability of schools. Different accountability approaches are in practice. Mixed methods research design opted for using an interview protocol and sur\vey with 2220 participants from public elementary schools. A pragmatic approach selected for reliability, and validity was assured while using a triangulation design. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were performed for the analysis of data. It concluded that educational accountability is a challenging job. Data revealed an ambiguity in the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, teachers, head teachers, parents, students, and district administration. Assign duties may be clarified, and responsible persons may be considered answerable. Some policies are there, but these are in practice in a different sense. Implementation of policies may be authenticated. When students' achievement is considered the main drive of school effectiveness, and schools are rated accountable for results to nurture positive change. More than achievement in numbers alone is required for quality education, as this can easily be achieved through misreporting. For quality and improvement over time, some prime features like creativity and higher-order thinking skills are mandatory. In different situations, there may be other yardsticks to judge students' personality traits like teamwork, commitment, and emotional adjustment.</em> <em>School teachers and head teachers had recommended replacing test-based accountability with performance-based accountability to amplify student learning and success.</em></p> Sofia Jabeen, Samaira Zulifqar Ali, Dr. Ishra Batool Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/968 Thu, 25 May 2023 06:04:05 +0000 Comparing the Performance of Private and Public Sector Mutual Funds: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Returns https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/967 <p>Increasing interest towards mutual funds has significantly attracted attentions of the researchers, investors in mutual fund scheme. Similarly, investment opportunities and interest towards mutual funds have also increased in Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of the research was to empirically analyse and understand the changes in performance of private and public sector of Pakistan Mutual fund. For conducting this research, researcher has relied on secondary quantitative information, and data has been derived from MUFAP on 1 private company (i.e. Al Meezan Investment Management Limited) and 1 public company (i.e. ABL Cash Fund). For data analysis, statistical tools including correlation, and T-test were used through using SPSS software. Findings show that there is a significance difference in performance of both private and public sector. As NAV and return in private sector is found to be statistically different from public sector. Additionally, risk in mutual fund of private sector is also found to be statistically different from public sector. Further, findings in the current research have also shows a negative association between return and risk of both private and public mutual funds. Findings in the current research can be used to fill a gap in previous studies. Further, findings in the current research can also be used in future studies through increasing sample size, and other factors. Moreover, it can also be used for cross countries, companies, and region.</p> Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Mohsan Ali, Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/967 Thu, 25 May 2023 04:56:15 +0000 A Comprehensive Examination of the Concept of Women Rights in Islam, along with a Concise Comparative Analysis of Legal Systems in other Nations: Exploring the Clash of Narratives https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/965 <p><em>This paper intends to offer a thorough and comprehensive examination of the concept of women rights, considering various perspectives and conducting comparative analysis with the legal philosophy of other nations. The research examines conflicting myths about women rights within Islamic societies, seeking to put light on the relevant complexities. By analysing the ideologies, interpretations and cultural impacts, this research seeks to present a cogent review of the concept of women rights. The significance of this study lies in its contribution to a better understanding of the complexities surrounding the concept of women rights in Islamic civilizations, and how they differ from legal frameworks of other nations. By conducting this interdisciplinary analysis, the research offers valuable insights towards the evolving nature of women rights within Islamic background and facilitates a deeper appreciation of the resemblances and differences across various legal frameworks. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for a true understanding of women's rights in Islam and the importance of contextualizing them within the broader global discourse. The study contributes to a more informed and inclusive dialogue on women rights and gender equality, fostering an environment conducive to respectful engagement and constructive reform. The study has adopted the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> Amjad Hussain, Rizwana Gul, Aas Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/965 Thu, 25 May 2023 04:20:08 +0000 Imran Khan and Z.A. Bhutto: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistani Political Speeches https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/964 <p><em>Critical Discourse Analysis elucidates the text, language, social customs, hidden agendas, and linguistic twists. Politicians manipulate language in such a way that people's sentiments and emotions connect with politicians. In political debates, CDA has been used to showcase the speech style behind all these and every sort of discourse that can be employed to control the sentiment expressed to the audience (Roffee, 2016). Fairclough's study of the three-dimensional model: text, discursive practices, and societal practices influenced this study. This research examines how political speeches by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Imran Khan are constructed and how ideology emerges. Various linguistic tools have been investigated to uncover hidden agendas. The major findings in Imran Khan's power projection are his excessive use of religious and political implications and personal pronouns to gain and show his power. Power is discovered to be constructed via language, ideology, society, and political practices. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's speech focuses on the right of countries to self-determination. Both UN speeches were watershed moments in Pakistani history, reflecting existing political ideologies and societal factors. The speeches demonstrate how language can build persuasive arguments and communicate important ideas beyond words.</em></p> Sarah Anjum, Muhammad Sabboor Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://ojs.sjesr.org.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/964 Thu, 25 May 2023 03:46:42 +0000