Effectiveness of 4D/5D Scheduling in Planning for Delay Reduction in Construction Projects
Construction projects globally are frequently plagued by chronic issues such as delays and cost overruns. This study examined the feasibility of incorporating 4D (3D + time) and 5D (3D + time + cost) scheduling methodologies in construction planning with the aim of enhancing project efficiency. This study conducted an examination of the advantages associated with increased visualisation, improved task sequencing, proactive delay detection, optimised resource allocation, and integrated cost control while utilising 4D/5D building information modelling (BIM). The implementation of 4D/5D techniques has resulted in reductions in delays ranging from 15% to 50%, as evidenced by global case studies. The present study employed a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess hypothetical projects, aiming to quantify possible savings in terms of time and money. The findings reveal a decrease of 190 days and 22.4 million PKR, respectively, in these two dimensions. The adoption of 4D/5D BIM resulted in a notable increase in stakeholder satisfaction, with ratings improving from 2.6 to 4.2 out of 5. The study's findings indicate that, despite encountering several challenges, the use of 4D/5D scheduling in the Pakistani construction sector yields notable improvements in efficiency and benefits for stakeholders. The recommendations encompass the development of standardised data, software with interoperability capabilities, training programs, and collaborative initiatives within the industry. These measures are crucial for the successful implementation of 4D/5D Building Information Modelling (BIM). Additional investigation might examine the long-term return on investment, the use of these techniques in infrastructure projects, and comparison assessments with traditional methods.