Weighty Matters: Exploring the Economic Ramifications of Obesity, Abdominal Bloating, and Spinal Deformities in Pakistan

  • Muhammad Ali Department of Economics Al MADINAH International University MEDIU – Kuala Lampur –Malaysia
  • Zubair Ahmad PhD Scholar, Libera Università 'Mediterranean (LUM - Libera Università Mediterranea "Giuseppe Degennaro", Bari, Italy.
Keywords: Abdominal Bloating, Spinal Deformities, Healthcare Issues, Obesity, Economic Ramifications


This study conducted in Pakistan from December 2020 to December 2022 addresses the rising health issues associated with abdominal bloating (AB), spinal deformities (ST), and obesity. With risk factors including improper diet, sedentary lifestyles, and abnormal posture, the research aims to provide valuable insights into the complications and diseases linked to these health concerns. The observational study involved 50 males categorized into three age groups (50-60, 61-70, 71-75), with 48 classified as obese and 2 non-obese participants. Utilizing data tabulation and GraphPad Prism 9.5.2, the study employed econometric research methods and descriptive statistics, including ANOVA variance, for parametric analysis. Results indicated a positive association between AB and health diseases, with a slight association observed with ST. Participants exhibited varying levels of ST and AB, revealing potential links between these factors. The study concludes that factors like improper diet and sedentary lifestyles increase the risk of obesity, which, in turn, may progress to AB and lead to ST, potentially causing a range of chronic health issues.