Domestic Violence: The Psychological and Legal Factors That Affect Reporting, Prosecution, and Sentencing

  • Abdus Samad Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan
  • Sobia Bashir Assistant Professor, Law College, University of Peshawar
  • Faisal Shehzad Assistant Professor, Department of Shariah and Law, Islamia College University Peshawar
Keywords: Domestic Violence, Psychological Factors, Legal Factors, Insufficient Resources, Victim Blaming, Weak Sentencing Guidelines, Enforcing Protective Orders.


The article highlights the pervasive problem of domestic violence worldwide and the need for a comprehensive understanding of the psychological and legal factors that contribute to it. The psychological factors include individual and cultural beliefs about gender roles, mental health issues, and substance abuse, which can affect reporting and recovery. Legal factors such as insufficient resources, victim blaming, weak sentencing guidelines, and lack of consistency in enforcing protective orders can compound the challenges faced by victims. The article recommends several strategies to address these challenges, including increasing funding and resources for domestic violence programs and services, providing comprehensive training for law enforcement, increasing public awareness, developing consistent sentencing guidelines, improving enforcement of protective orders, and providing trauma-informed care for victims. The article emphasizes the need for a collaborative effort from stakeholders across the criminal justice system and the broader community to create an effective and compassionate response that prioritizes victim safety, holds offenders accountable, and promotes healing and recovery.