Inclusive Education Can Bring Change: The Impact of Factors Influencing Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Private and Public Secondary Schools of Karachi

  • Shameer Khokhar PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Manzoor Ahmed Lecturer of Education, Department of Education, University of Turbat, Balochistan, Pakistan
  • Dr. Shah Mir Assistant Professor of English, Department of English, University of Turbat, Balochistan, Pakistan
Keywords: Inclusive Education, Teachers’ Attitudes, Teachers’ Efficacy, Secondary Schools, Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN).


Teachers must have a positive outlook and be dedicated to the tasks they undertake if they are to succeed in inclusive education. It is vital to ensure that all students have an inclusive future in the classroom. Teachers play an iconic role in implementing inclusive education. The successful execution of inclusive education is primarily attributable to teachers' attitudes toward inclusion policies. This study aims to investigate the impact of Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) on Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education Scale (TAIS). This study employed two different TEIP Scale and TAIS Scale for examining their relationships. This cross-sectional comparative study also seeks to determine the impact of factors influencing teachers' views toward inclusive education. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 25. The participants included (n=215) secondary school teachers from the private and public schools in Karachi. ANOVA, regression, and one sample t-test were used comparing the factors influencing teachers' views towards inclusion and explore the effect of TEIP on TAIS in public and private secondary schools. The findings show that the secondary school teachers of the private institutions had a significantly more favourable attitude towards inclusive education than secondary school teachers in public institutions. TEIP and TAIS were correlated using the Pearson Correlation test (TEIP). It demonstrates that teachers' attitude toward inclusive education is positively linked with Teachers’ Efficacy to Use Inclusive Instructions (EUII), Efficacy in Cooperation (EC), and Efficacy in Dealing with Disruptive Behaviors (EDDB). This study reveals that there is a significantly positive impact of EUII, EC, and EDDB on TAIS.